This Man Started Singing “Stand By Me” On The Street. But You’ll Be SHOCKED To See Who Joined Him!

“Stand by Me”, originally composed and sung by Ben E. King, is one of the most recognizable tunes of the century. It has over 400 recorded versions, from everyone including John Lennon to Otis Redding releasing their versions of this memorable song. In 2015, it was also inducted into the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress.

The version in this video is one of the most unique versions ever. Musicians from all over the world have lent their talents into making this amazing cover. This was made possible by playingforchange.org, which reaches out to communities around the world and provides children with music and art education. Since their humble beginnings in 2005, they have become a global sensation. Since music is so universal, it’s no surprise to see them become a global sensation!

Did this amazing video inspire you? Share with your loved ones!

This #Video, goes out, to all the #Flat #Earthers out there! #LMFAO

We here at Notoriously White, Now and then, like to keep all the, sub human, No IQ’ers informed, so sit down open a beer and enjoy these video’s on Flat Earthers. I know the Smart users out there will appreciate this informative video collection!!

 

Testing Flattards – Part 1

Testing Flattards – Part 2

MinusIQ | The pill to lower your IQ permanently

Published on 27 Nov 2016

Part one in a series taking a wry look at the idiotic belief that the Earth is flat, and how that stacks up against reality. This part takes a look at some fundamental geometric problems with flattards’ favourite “map”, an Azimuthal Equidistant Projection.

Guidance: Contains some mild language within a comedy context.

This video also contains specially composed music by AlanKey86. You can listen to more of Alan’s music over on his channel:
https://www.youtube.com/user/AlanKey86

Check out Martymer 81’s here:
https://www.youtube.com/user/Martymer81

Check out Kraut and Tea here:
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCr_Q…

Published on 22 Jan 2017

Part two in a series taking a wry look at the idiotic belief that the Earth is flat, and how that stacks up against reality. This part looks skyward as we consider basic observations of the stars, and find out where the Sun would be if it were a flying spotlight.

Guidance: Contains some mild language within a comedy context.

This video also contains specially composed music by AlanKey86. You can listen to more of Alan’s music over on his channel:
https://www.youtube.com/user/AlanKey86

Curious about the night sky? Grab yourself a copy of the open source planetarium, Stellarium:
http://stellarium.sourceforge.net/

Published on 19 Mar 2013

The world’s a much brighter place when you’re not too bright for it.
http://www.sleepthinker.com
http://www.facebook.com/sleepthinker

There Is Sound In Space, Thanks To Gravitational Waves

Merging black holes are one class of objects that creates gravitational waves of certain frequencies and amplitudes. Thanks to detectors like LIGO, we can 'hear' these sounds as they occur.

It’s long been said that there’s no sound in space, and that’s true, to a point. Conventional sound requires a medium to travel through, and is created when particles compress-and-rarify, making anything from a loud “bang” for a single pulse to a consistent tone for repeating patterns. In space, where there are so few particles that any such signals die away, even solar flares, supernovae, black hole mergers, and other cosmic catastrophes go silent before they’re ever heard. But there’s another type of compression-and-rarefaction that doesn’t require anything other than the fabric of space itself to travel through: gravitational waves. Thanks to the first positive detection results from LIGO, we’re hearing the Universe for the very first time.

Two merging black holes. The inspiral results in the black holes coming together, while gravitational waves carry the excess energy away. The background spacetime is distorted as a result.

Two merging black holes. The inspiral results in the black holes coming together, while gravitational waves carry the excess energy away. The background spacetime is distorted as a result.

Gravitational waves were something that needed to exist for our theory of gravity to be consistent, according to General Relativity. Unlike in Newton’s gravity, where any two masses orbiting one another would remain in that configuration forever, Einstein’s theory predicted that over long enough times, gravitational orbits would decay. For something like the Earth orbiting the Sun, you’d never live to experience it: it would take 10^150 years for Earth to spiral into the Sun. But for more extreme systems, like two neutron stars orbiting one another, we could actually see the orbits decaying over time. In order to conserve energy, Einstein’s theory of gravity predicted that energy must be carried away in the form of gravitational waves.

As two neutron stars orbit each other, Einstein's theory of general relativity predicts orbital decay, and the emission of gravitational radiation.

As two neutron stars orbit each other, Einstein’s theory of General Relativity predicts orbital decay, and the emission of gravitational radiation. The former has been observed very precisely for many years, as evidenced by how the points and the line (GR prediction) match up so very well.

These waves are maddeningly weak, and their effects on the objects in spacetime are stupendously tiny. But if you know how to listen for them — just as the components of a radio know how to listen for those long-frequency light waves — you can detect these signals and hear them just as you’d hear any other sound. With an amplitude and a frequency, they’re no different from any other wave. General Relativity makes explicit predictions for what these waves should sound like, with the largest wave-generating signals being the easiest ones to detect. The largest amplitude sounds all? It’s the inspiral and merging “chirp” of two black holes that spiral into one another.

In September of 2015, just days after advanced LIGO began collecting data for the first time, a large, unusual signal was spotted. It surprised everyone, because it would have carried so much energy in just a short, 200 millisecond burst, that it would have outshone all the stars in the observable Universe combined. Yet that signal turned out to be robust, and the energy from that burst came from two black holes — of 36 and 29 solar masses — merging into a single 62 solar mass one. Those missing three solar masses? They were converted into pure energy: gravitational waves rippling through the fabric of space. That was the first event LIGO ever detected.

The signal from LIGO of the first robust detection of gravitational waves. The waveform is not just a visualization; it's representative of what you'd actually hear if you listened properly.

The signal from LIGO of the first robust detection of gravitational waves. The waveform is not just a visualization; it’s representative of what you’d actually hear if you listened properly.

Now it’s over a year later, and LIGO is presently on its second run. Not only have other black hole-black hole mergers been detected, but the future of gravitational wave astronomy is bright, as new detectors will open up our ears to new types of sounds. Space interferometers, like LISA, will have longer baselines and will hear lower frequency sounds: sounds like neutron star mergers, feasting supermassive black holes, and mergers with highly unequal masses. Pulsar timing arrays can measure even lower frequencies, like orbits that take years to complete, such as the supermassive black hole pair: OJ 287. And combinations of new techniques will look for the oldest gravitational waves of all, the relic waves predicted by cosmic inflation, all the way back at the beginning of our Universe.

Gravitational waves generated by cosmic inflation are the farthest signal back in time humanity can conceive of potentially detecting. Collaborations like BICEP2 and NANOgrav may indirectly do this in the coming decades.

Gravitational waves generated by cosmic inflation are the farthest signal back in time humanity can conceive of potentially detecting. Collaborations like BICEP2 and NANOgrav may indirectly do this in the coming decades.

There’s so much to hear, and we’ve only just started listening for the first time. Thankfully, astrophysicist Janna Levin — author of the fantastic book, Black Hole Blues and Other Songs from Outer Space — is poised to give the public lecture at Perimeter Institute tonight, May 3rd, at 7 PM Eastern / 4 PM Pacific, and it will be live-streamed here and live-blogged by me in real time! Join us then for even more about this incredible topic, and I can’t wait to hear her talk.

 

The Universe is out there, waiting for you to discover it

Ethan SiegelEthan Siegel, Contributor

Merging black holes are one class of objects that creates gravitational waves of certain frequencies and amplitudes. Thanks to detectors like LIGO, we can 'hear' these sounds as they occur.

Merging black holes are one class of objects that creates gravitational waves of certain frequencies and amplitudes. Thanks to detectors like LIGO, we can ‘hear’ these sounds as they occur.

It’s long been said that there’s no sound in space, and that’s true, to a point. Conventional sound requires a medium to travel through, and is created when particles compress-and-rarify, making anything from a loud “bang” for a single pulse to a consistent tone for repeating patterns. In space, where there are so few particles that any such signals die away, even solar flares, supernovae, black hole mergers, and other cosmic catastrophes go silent before they’re ever heard. But there’s another type of compression-and-rarefaction that doesn’t require anything other than the fabric of space itself to travel through: gravitational waves. Thanks to the first positive detection results from LIGO, we’re hearing the Universe for the very first time.

Two merging black holes. The inspiral results in the black holes coming together, while gravitational waves carry the excess energy away. The background spacetime is distorted as a result.

Two merging black holes. The inspiral results in the black holes coming together, while gravitational waves carry the excess energy away. The background spacetime is distorted as a result.

Gravitational waves were something that needed to exist for our theory of gravity to be consistent, according to General Relativity. Unlike in Newton’s gravity, where any two masses orbiting one another would remain in that configuration forever, Einstein’s theory predicted that over long enough times, gravitational orbits would decay. For something like the Earth orbiting the Sun, you’d never live to experience it: it would take 10^150 years for Earth to spiral into the Sun. But for more extreme systems, like two neutron stars orbiting one another, we could actually see the orbits decaying over time. In order to conserve energy, Einstein’s theory of gravity predicted that energy must be carried away in the form of gravitational waves.

As two neutron stars orbit each other, Einstein's theory of general relativity predicts orbital decay, and the emission of gravitational radiation.

As two neutron stars orbit each other, Einstein’s theory of General Relativity predicts orbital decay, and the emission of gravitational radiation. The former has been observed very precisely for many years, as evidenced by how the points and the line (GR prediction) match up so very well.

These waves are maddeningly weak, and their effects on the objects in spacetime are stupendously tiny. But if you know how to listen for them — just as the components of a radio know how to listen for those long-frequency light waves — you can detect these signals and hear them just as you’d hear any other sound. With an amplitude and a frequency, they’re no different from any other wave. General Relativity makes explicit predictions for what these waves should sound like, with the largest wave-generating signals being the easiest ones to detect. The largest amplitude sounds all? It’s the inspiral and merging “chirp” of two black holes that spiral into one another.

In September of 2015, just days after advanced LIGO began collecting data for the first time, a large, unusual signal was spotted. It surprised everyone, because it would have carried so much energy in just a short, 200 millisecond burst, that it would have outshone all the stars in the observable Universe combined. Yet that signal turned out to be robust, and the energy from that burst came from two black holes — of 36 and 29 solar masses — merging into a single 62 solar mass one. Those missing three solar masses? They were converted into pure energy: gravitational waves rippling through the fabric of space. That was the first event LIGO ever detected.

The signal from LIGO of the first robust detection of gravitational waves. The waveform is not just a visualization; it's representative of what you'd actually hear if you listened properly.

The signal from LIGO of the first robust detection of gravitational waves. The waveform is not just a visualization; it’s representative of what you’d actually hear if you listened properly.

Now it’s over a year later, and LIGO is presently on its second run. Not only have other black hole-black hole mergers been detected, but the future of gravitational wave astronomy is bright, as new detectors will open up our ears to new types of sounds. Space interferometers, like LISA, will have longer baselines and will hear lower frequency sounds: sounds like neutron star mergers, feasting supermassive black holes, and mergers with highly unequal masses. Pulsar timing arrays can measure even lower frequencies, like orbits that take years to complete, such as the supermassive black hole pair: OJ 287. And combinations of new techniques will look for the oldest gravitational waves of all, the relic waves predicted by cosmic inflation, all the way back at the beginning of our Universe.

Gravitational waves generated by cosmic inflation are the farthest signal back in time humanity can conceive of potentially detecting. Collaborations like BICEP2 and NANOgrav may indirectly do this in the coming decades.

Gravitational waves generated by cosmic inflation are the farthest signal back in time humanity can conceive of potentially detecting. Collaborations like BICEP2 and NANOgrav may indirectly do this in the coming decades.

There’s so much to hear, and we’ve only just started listening for the first time. Thankfully, astrophysicist Janna Levin — author of the fantastic book, Black Hole Blues and Other Songs from Outer Space — is poised to give the public lecture at Perimeter Institute tonight, May 3rd, at 7 PM Eastern / 4 PM Pacific, and it will be live-streamed here and live-blogged by me in real time! Join us then for even more about this incredible topic, and I can’t wait to hear her talk.


The live blog will begin a few minutes prior to 4:00 PM Pacific; join us here and follow along!

The warping of spacetime, in the General Relativistic picture, by gravitational masses.

The warping of spacetime, in the General Relativistic picture, by gravitational masses.

3:50 PM: It’s ten minutes until showtime, and to celebrate, here are ten fun facts (or as many as we can get in) about gravity and gravitational waves.

1.) Instead of “action at a distance,” where an invisible force is exerted between masses, general relativity says that matter and energy warp the fabric of spacetime, and that warped spacetime is what manifests itself as gravitation.

2.) Instead of traveling at infinite speed, gravitation only travels at the speed of light.

3.) This is important, because it means that if any changes occur to a massive object’s position, configuration, motion, etc., the ensuing gravitational changes only propagate at the speed of light.

Computer simulation of two merging black holes producing gravitational waves.

Computer simulation of two merging black holes producing gravitational waves.

3:54 PM: 4.) This means that gravitational waves, for example, can only propagate at the speed of light. When we “detect” a gravitational wave, we’re detecting the signal from when that mass configuration changed.

5.) The first signal detected by LIGO occurred at a distance of approximately 1.3 billion light years. The Universe was about 10% younger than it is today when that merger occurred.

Ripples in spacetime are what gravitational waves are.

Ripples in spacetime are what gravitational waves are.

6.) If gravitation traveled at infinite speed, planetary orbits would be completely unstable. The fact that planets move in ellipses around the Sun mandates that if General Relativity is correct, the speed of gravity must equal the speed of light to an accuracy of about 1%.

3:57 PM: 7.) There are many, many more gravitational wave signals than what LIGO has seen so far; we’ve only detected the easiest signal there is to detect.

8.) What makes a signal “easy” to see is a combination of its amplitude, which is to say, how much it can deform a path-length, or a distance in space, as well as its frequency.

A simplified illustration of LIGO's laser interferometer system.

A simplified illustration of LIGO’s laser interferometer system.

9.) Because LIGO’s arms are only 4 kilometers long, and the mirrors reflect the light thousands of times (but no more), that means LIGO can only detect frequencies of 1 Hz or faster.

Earlier this year, LIGO announced the first-ever direct detection of gravitational waves. By building a gravitational wave observatory in space, we may be able to reach the sensitivities necessary to detect a deliberate alien signal.

Earlier this year, LIGO announced the first-ever direct detection of gravitational waves. By building a gravitational wave observatory in space, we may be able to reach the sensitivities necessary to detect a deliberate alien signal.

10.) For slower signals, we need longer lever-arms and greater sensitivities, and that will mean going to space. That’s the future of gravitational wave astronomy!

4:01 PM: We made it! Time to begin and introduce Janna Levin! (Pronounce “JAN-na”, not “YON-na”, if you were wondering.)

The inspiral and merger of the first pair of black holes ever directly observed.

The inspiral and merger of the first pair of black holes ever directly observed.

4:05 PM: Here’s the big announcement/shot: the first direct recording of the first gravitational wave. It took 100 years after Einstein first put forth general relativity, and she’s playing a recording! Make sure you go and listen! What does it mean to “hear” a sound in space, after all, and why is this a sound? That’s the purpose, she says, of her talk.

The galaxies Maffei 1 and Maffei 2, in the plane of the Milky Way, can only be revealed by seeing through the Milky Way's dust. Despite being some of the closest large galaxies of all, they were not discovered until the mid-20th century.

The galaxies Maffei 1 and Maffei 2, in the plane of the Milky Way, can only be revealed by seeing through the Milky Way’s dust. Despite being some of the closest large galaxies of all, they were not discovered until the mid-20th century.

4:08 PM: If you consider what’s out there in the Universe, we had no way of knowing any of this at the time of Galileo. We were thinking about sunspots, Saturn, etc., and were completely unable to conceive of the great cosmic scales or distances. Forget about “conceiving of other galaxies,” we hadn’t conceived of any of this!

 

4:10 PM: Janna is showing one of my favorite videos (that I recognize) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey! They took a survey of 400,000 of the nearest galaxies and mapped them in three dimensions. This is what our (nearby) Universe looks like, and as you can see, it really is mostly empty space!

The (modern) Morgan–Keenan spectral classification system, with the temperature range of each star class shown above it, in kelvin.

The (modern) Morgan–Keenan spectral classification system, with the temperature range of each star class shown above it, in kelvin.

4:12 PM: She makes a really great point that she totally glosses over: only about 1-in-1000 stars will ever become a black hole. There are over 400 stars within 30 light years of us, and zero of them are O or B stars, and zero of them have become black holes. These bluest, most massive and shortest-lived stars are the only ones that will grow into black holes.

The identical behavior of a ball falling to the floor in an accelerated rocket (left) and on Earth (right) is a demonstration of Einstein's equivalence principle.

The identical behavior of a ball falling to the floor in an accelerated rocket (left) and on Earth (right) is a demonstration of Einstein’s equivalence principle.

4:15 PM: When you consider “where did Einstein’s theory come from,” Janna makes a great point: the idea of the equivalence principle. If you have gravity, you might consider that you feel “heavy” in your chair, for example. But this reaction that you have is the exact same reaction you’d feel if you were accelerating, rather than gravitating. It’s not the gravity that you feel, it’s the effects of the matter around you!

4:17 PM: The band OKGO did a video flying in the vomit comet. Janna can’t show the whole thing, with audio, for copyright reasons, and highly recommends it. Luckily for you, thanks to the internet… here it is! Enjoy at your leisure!

To travel once around Earth's orbit in a path around the Sun is a journey of 940 million kilometers.

To travel once around Earth’s orbit in a path around the Sun is a journey of 940 million kilometers.

4:19 PM: There’s another huge revelation for gravity: the way we understand how things work comes from watching how things fall. The Moon is “falling” around the Earth; Newton realized that. But the Earth is falling around the Sun; the Sun is “falling” around the galaxy; and atoms “fall” here on Earth. But the same rule applies to them all, so long as they’re all in free-fall. Amazing!

Black holes are something the Universe wasn't born with, but has grown to acquire over time. They now dominate the Universe's entropy.

Black holes are something the Universe wasn’t born with, but has grown to acquire over time. They now dominate the Universe’s entropy.

4:21 PM: Here’s a fun revelation: stop thinking of a black hole as collapsed, crushed matter, even though that might be how it originated. Instead, think about it as simply a region of empty space with strong gravitational properties. In fact, if all you did was assign “mass” to this region of space, that would perfectly define a Schwarzschild (non-charged, non-rotating) black hole.

The supermassive black hole (Sgr A*) at the center of our galaxy is shrouded in a dusty, gaseous environment. X-rays and infrared observations can partially see through it, but radio waves might finally be able to resolve it directly.

The supermassive black hole (Sgr A*) at the center of our galaxy is shrouded in a dusty, gaseous environment. X-rays and infrared observations can partially see through it, but radio waves might finally be able to resolve it directly.

4:23 PM: If you were to fall into a black hole the mass of the Sun, you’d have about a microsecond, from crossing the event horizon (according to Janna) until you were crushed to death at the singularity. This is consistent with what I once calculated, where, for the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, we’d have about 10 seconds. Since the Milky Way’s black hole is 4,000,000 times as massive as our Sun, the math kind of works out!

Joseph Weber with his early-stage gravitational wave detector, known as a Weber bar.

Joseph Weber with his early-stage gravitational wave detector, known as a Weber bar.

4:26 PM: How would you detect a gravitational wave? Honestly, it would be like being on the surface of the ocean; you’d bob up and down along the surface of space, and there was a big argument in the community as to whether these waves were real or not. It wasn’t until Joe Weber came along and decided to try and measure these gravitational waves, using a phenomenal device — an aluminum bar — that would vibrate if a rippling wave “plucked” the bar very slightly.

Weber saw many such signals that he identified with gravitational waves, but these, unfortunately, were never reproduced or verified. He was, for all of his cleverness, not a very careful experimenter.

4:29 PM: There’s a good question from Jon Groubert on twitter: “I have a question about something she said – there is something inside a black hole, isn’t there? Like a heavy neutron star.” There should be a singularity, which is either point-like (for a non-rotating singularity) or a one-dimensional ring (for a rotating one), but not condensed, collapsed, three-dimensional matter.

Why not?

Because in order to remain as a structure, a force needs to propagate and be transmitted between particles. But particles can only transmit forces at the speed of light. But nothing, not even light, can move “outward” towards the exit of a black hole; everything moves towards the singularity. And so nothing can hold itself up, and everything collapses into the singularity. Sad, but the physics makes this inevitable.

From left to right: the two LIGO detectors (in Hanford and Livingston, US) and the Virgo detector (Cascina, Italie).

From left to right: the two LIGO detectors (in Hanford and Livingston, US) and the Virgo detector (Cascina, Italie).

4:32 PM: After Weber’s failures (and fall from fame), the idea of LIGO came along by Rai Weiss in the 1970s. It took more than 40 years for LIGO to come to fruition (and over 1,000 people to make it happen), but the most fantastic thing was that it was experimentally possible. By making two very long lever-arms, you could see the effect of a passing gravitational wave.

 

 

4:34 PM: This is my favorite video illustrating what a gravitational wave does. It moves space itself (and everything in it) back and forth by a tiny amount. If you have a laser interferometer set up (like LIGO), it can detect these vibrations. But if you were close enough and your ears were sensitive enough, you could feel this motion in your eardrum!

4:35 PM: I’ve got some really good headphones, Perimeter, but unfortunately I can’t hear the different gravitational wave model signals that Janna is playing!

The LIGO Hanford Observatory for detecting gravitational waves in Washington State, USA.

The LIGO Hanford Observatory for detecting gravitational waves in Washington State, USA.

4:38 PM: It’s funny to think that this is the world’s most advanced vacuum, inside the LIGO detectors. Yet birds, rats, mice, etc., are all under there, and they chew their way into almost the vacuum chamber that the light travels through. But if the vacuum had been broken (it’s been constant since 1998), the experiment would have been over. In Louisiana, hunters shot at the LIGO tunnels. It’s horrifying how sensitive and expensive this equipment is, but yet how fragile it all is, too.

4:41 PM: Janna is doing a really great job telling this story in a suspenseful but very human way. We only saw the final few orbits of two orbiting black holes, drastically slowed down in the above movie. They were only a few hundred kilometers apart, those final four orbits took 200 millisecond, and that’s the entirety of the signal that LIGO saw.

 

4:43 PM: If you’re having trouble listening/hearing the events in the talk, listen to this video (above), in both natural pitch and increased pitch. The smaller black holes (roughly 8 and 13 solar masses) from December 26, 2015, are both quieter and higher pitched than the larger ones (29 and 36 solar masses) from September 14th in the same year.

4:46 PM: Just a little correction: Janna says this was the most powerful event ever detected since the Big Bang. And that’s only technically true, because of the limits of our detection.

When we get any black hole mergers, approximately 10% of the mass of the least massive black hole in a merger pair gets converted into pure energy via Einstein’s E = mc2. 29 solar masses is a lot, but there are going to be black holes of hundreds of millions or even billions of solar masses that have merged together. And we have proof.

The most massive black hole binary signal ever seen: OJ 287.

The most massive black hole binary signal ever seen: OJ 287.

4:49 PM: This is OJ 287, where a 150 million solar mass black hole orbits an ~18 billion solar mass black hole. It takes 11 years for a complete orbit to occur, and General Relativity predicts a precession of 270 degrees per orbit here, compared to 43 arc seconds per century for Mercury.

4:51 PM: Janna did an incredible job ending on time here; I’ve never seen an hour talk actually end after 50 minutes at a Perimeter public lecture. Wow!

The Earth as viewed from a composite of NASA satellite images from space in the early 2000s.

The Earth as viewed from a composite of NASA satellite images from space in the early 2000s.

4:52 PM: What would happen if Earth got sucked up into a black hole? (Q&A question from Max.) Although Janna’s giving a great answer, I’d like to point out that, from a gravitational wave point of view, Earth would be shredded apart, and we’d get a “smeared out” wave signal, that would be a much noisier, static-y signal. Once Earth got swallowed, the event horizon would grow just a tiny bit, as an extra three millionths of a solar mass increased the black hole’s radius by just that tiny, corresponding amount.

4:55 PM: What a fun talk, a great and snappy Q&A session, and a great experience overall. Enjoy it again and again, because the video of the talk is now embedded as a permalink. And thanks for tuning in!

“2 HOURS” ― #Award Winning #Zombie Short #Film

Published on 29 Sep 2012

2 HOURS is an award winning zombie short horror film which has screened at over 30 film festivals around the world. The film was shot with a skeleton crew ranging from 1-3 people, using a Canon T2i with just two lenses. Made with zero budget, this film is the result of good friends, dedication, and a passion for filmmaking.

A nameless survivor is bitten and infected with the virus, a beautiful gift to the world. With only 2 HOURS to find the missing survivors, he must move quickly before the virus spreads too far.

Director: Michael Ballif
Writer: Josh Merrill
Producers: Michael Ballif & Josh Merrill
Executive Producer: Zach Wall
Starring: Josh Merrill & Brooke Hemsath
Production Designer: Allen Bradford
Original Score: Keaton Anderson
Editor/VFX: Michael Ballif
Special Make-Up FX: Allen Bradford & Brian Nuzman
Sound: Josh Merrill

Like 2 Hours? CHECK OUT OUR NEW HORROR SERIES:

http://www.youtube.com/witchingseason…

Get the 2 Hours theme song on iTunes:

https://itunes.apple.com/album/beauti

▶ Main Website: http://2hoursthemovie.com
▶ Facebook: http://facebook.com/2hoursthemovie
▶ Youtube: http://youtube.com/2hoursthemovie
▶ IMDB: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2382004/
▶ Contact e-mail: 2hoursthemovie@gmail.com

Film Festival Screenings & Awards:

Awards:
Best Short – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Horror – Phoenix Comicon Film Festival (AZ)
Best Zombie Short Film – Fear Fete Film Festival (MS)
Best Directing – Hibulb Cultural Center Film Festival (WA)
Online Audience Choice – A Night Of Horror Film Festival (AU)
Best Intl. Filmmaker – Staffordshire Film Festival (UK)
Best Visual Effects – UVU Film Festival (UT)
Best Sound – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Acting (2nd Place) – Hibulb Cultural Center Film Festival (WA)
Best Short (2nd Place) – Sci-Fi on the Rock Film Festival (CA)
Best Short (3rd Place) – Hibulb Cultural Center Film Festival (WA)

Nominations:
Best Narrative Short – Phoenix Comicon Film Festival (AZ)
Best of Festival – Phoenix Comicon Film Festival (AZ)
Best Horror – Phoenix Comicon Film Festival (AZ)
Best Short Film – Sacramento Horror Film Festival (CA)
Best Screenplay – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Musical Score – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Cinematography – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Editing – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Musical Score – Salty Horror Film Festival (UT)
Best Sound – The Indie Horror Film Festival (IL)
Best Special FX – The Indie Horror Film Festival (IL)
Best Action/Thriller – Bare Bones International Film Festival (OK)
Best Zombie Film – Bare Bones International Film Festival (OK)
Best Sound – UVU Film Festival (UT)
Best Directing – UVU Film Festival (UT)
Best Acting – UVU Film Festival (UT)
Best Short Film – Fear Fete Film Festival (MS)
Best Directing – Fear Fete Film Festival (MS)
Best Acting – Fear Fete Film Festival (MS)

Official Selections:
Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
The Indie Horror Film Festival (IL)
Short Sweet Film Fest (OH)
Sci-Fi on the Rock Film Festival (CA)
Salty Horror Film Festival (UT)
Logan Film Festival (UT)
Bare Bones International Film Festival (OK)
Capital City Film Festival (MI)
Crossroads Film Festival (MS)
Mad Monster Party Film Festival (NC)
Horror Realm Convention (PA)
Horror in the Hammer Film Festival (CA)
Phoenix Comicon Film Festival (AZ)
Virginia Independent Horror Film Festival (VA)
A Night of Horror Film Festival (AU)
TromaDance Film Festival (NJ)
Ft. Collins Horror Film Festival (CO)
Sunscreen Film Festival (FL)
Hibulb Cultural Center Film Festival (WA)
Staffordshire Film Festival (UK)
UVU Film Festival (UT)
Mascara & Popcorn Film Festival (CA)
No/Gloss Film Festival (UK)
Full Moon Fantasy & Horror Film Festival (RO)
HorrorQuest Film Festival (GA)
Fear Fete Film Festival (MS)
Hot Springs Int. Horror Film Festival (AR)
Zinema Zombie Fest (Columbia)
Sacramento Horror Film Festival (CA)
Jaxon Film Festival (MI)
Housecore Horror Film Festival (TX)

We have formed a new horror film production company called Witching Season Films, where we are releasing lots of new horror content! We are creating a number of different horror projects including a horror web anthology called The Witching Season. Find us at the links below!

▶ Main Website: http://witchingseasonfilms.com
▶ Facebook: http://facebook.com/witchingseasonfilms
▶ Youtube: http://youtube.com/witchingseasonfilms

Decarboxylation: What It Is, & Why You Should Decarb Your Weed

Decarboxylation: What It Is, & Why You Should Decarb Your Weed

decarbing

Have you ever wondered why you need to heat cannabis to feel the psychoactive effects? In order to get high from cannabis, you need to decarboxylate it first. But, what is decarboxylation and why should you decarb your weed? We’ll walk you through everything you need to know about getting the most out of your herb. 

What is decarboxylation?

Decarboxylation-Why-You-Should-1

Did you know that raw cannabis is non-psychoactive? The herb only becomes psychoactive when two things happen. First, when the bud dries and ages. Second, when the cannabis is heated. More psychoactive compounds are created by heating the plant than via ageing. In order to release the full potential of marijuana’s psychoactive effects, you must first go through a process called decarboxylation.

 

“Decarboxylation” is a long word for a simple process. To decarboxylate your herb, you just need to heat it. Applying a little heat to dried bud inspires some fascinating chemical reactions in the plant. Namely, you transform compounds called cannabinoid acids into a form that is readily usable by the body.

Cannabinoids are chemicals found in the cannabis plant that bind to cells in the body to produce effects. Sometimes decarboxylation is called “activating” or “decarbing”.

You probably have already heard that the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis is delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is what gets you high when you smoke a little flower or eat an edible. But, you won’t find much THC on a live, growing marijuana plant, if any at all. What you find instead is another compound called THCA, which is short for tetrahydrocannabinolic acid.

THCA is not psychoactive. That’s right, this acid compound won’t get you high. In order to feel the mind-altering effects of cannabis, you need to transform THCA into psychoactive THC. So, you apply a little heat.

Each time you take a lighter to a joint or place your cannabis in the oven, you are acting the part of an amateur chemist. You are converting one compound into another. You’re turning an otherwise non-psychoactive plant into a psychoactive one. To get specific, you are removing a “carboxyl group” from the acid form of THC. Hence the term “De-carboxylation“. Without that carboxyl group, THC is able to freely bind to cell receptors in your brain and body.

Are there benefits to raw cannabis?

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If you want a high, you need to decarb first. However, there are some benefits to leaving your cannabis raw. Keep in mind that “raw” does not mean dried and cured. When you dry and cure your cannabis, a little decarboxylation happens as the herb ages.

Raw, uncured cannabis has a variety of health benefits. Cannabinoid acids are potent anti-inflammatories. The herb is also packed full of vitamins and nutrients found in other healthy greens.

To use the herb raw, you’ll need to use freshly picked buds or fan leaves. You can also store raw cannabis in the refrigerator for a day or two like you would any other leafy green herb. Though, be mindful of mould and wilting. Densely packed cannabis flowers can become mouldy quite quickly when they’re exposed to moisture. You really want to use them as quickly as possible. They also begin to lose potency and denature the longer they sit.

Many medical cannabis patients have success by simply drinking raw cannabis juices or smoothies. You can find more information on raw, dietary cannabis here.

If you’re hoping for some psychoactive edibles, however, it’s best to decarboxylate your cannabis before you begin the cooking process.

Why do I decarb before cooking?

Decarboxylation-Why-You-Should-3

If you’re cooking with cannabis, it is highly recommended you decarboxylate before you begin making your edible. If you ingest cannabis and want the full psychoactive effect, you need to first decarboxylate before cooking with the herb. Activating your cannabis prior to cooking ensures that THC’s psychoactive potential is not wasted.

If you don’t decarb before cooking, you risk losing potency and are not making the most out of your cannabis.

Do I need to decarb CBD strains?

Decarboxylation-Why-You-Should-4

The short answer? Yes. CBD is short for cannabidiol, another common cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant. Unlike THC, CBD is non-psychoactive. Just like THC, CBD is found in its acid form in raw cannabis. This raw form (CBDA) has health-promoting properties on its own. But, activating CBD makes it more readily available for the body to use.

To use the proper term, activated CBD is more bioavailable. This means that the compound can be put to use by your body right away. When left in its raw form, your body has to do some extra work to break down the molecule and it may use the acid form in a slightly different way.

The same goes for other cannabinoids as well. Their raw form is the acid from. To make them more bioavailable, you need to decarboxylate. Bioavailability is why you need to decarb your weed.

Temperature and terpenes

Decarboxylation-Why-You-Should-5

When it comes to decarboxylating, the lower the temperature you use, the longer the decarboxylation process is it’s going to take. However, this is not a bad thing! When using a lower temperature, you to lose fewer terpenes throughout the decarboxylation process.

Have you ever wondered why buds of even the same strain can have different tastes and smells? The answer is hidden in terpenes. Simply put, terpenes are the oils that give cannabis plants and flowers their unique smell such as berry, mint, citrus, and pine. There are many medicinal benefits to terpenes; some will successfully relieve your stress while others will promote focus and awareness.

Terpenes also work in tandem with THC and other cannabinoids to amplify the medical benefits of certain strains. For example, one common terpene is linalool. Linalool is the compound that gives lavender its unique scent. Strains like L.A. Confidential and Lavender tend to have high levels of linalool. Research suggests that this may amplify the sedative effects of THC.

The max temperature for terpene expression is 310 to 400°F (154 – 204.4°C). Anything above that will burn off the terpenes, altering flavor and lessening medical effects.

How to decarb before cooking

Decarboxylation-Why-You-Should-6

Decarboxylation is a super simple process. Before you throw some cannabis into your pasta sauce or some “herbal seasoning” to your next pizza, make sure you follow these easy steps:

  1. Preheat the oven to 240° F. / 115° C.
  2. Break up cannabis flowers and buds into smaller pieces with your hands. We use one ounce, but you can elect to do more or less.
  3. Put the pieces in one layer on a rimmed baking sheet. Make sure the pan is the correct size so there is not empty space on the pan.
  4. Bake the cannabis for 30 to 40 minutes, stirring every 10 minutes so that it toasts evenly.
  5. When the cannabis is darker in color, a light to medium brown, and has dried out, remove the baking sheet and allow the cannabis to cool. It should be quite crumbly when handled.
  6. In a food processor, pulse the cannabis until it is coarsely ground (you don’t want a superfine powder). Store it in an airtight container and use as needed to make extractions

Watch the video

Fortunately, we’ve created this easy step-by-step video to walk you through the decarboxylation process. It really is not complicated, and taking a little time to properly activate your herb will produce amazing results. Watch the video below to see how it’s done:

 

 

This image of Putin is illegal in Russia, so don’t distribute it. FUCK #PUTIN, and #RUSSIA

Since 2013, Russia has enforced “internet extremism” laws that forbid the dissemination of online content that the government finds offensive. Newly added to that list is an image that depicts Vladimir Putin as, in the words of the Washington Post, “a potentially gay clown.” As such, the above image is now illegal in Russia to share the above photo. It’s not illegal here, though.

This registry of “extremist materials” features the photo at number 4071, and the Post describes it thusly: “a picture of a Putin-like person ’with eyes and lips made up,’ captioned with an implicit anti-gay slur, implying ’the supposed nonstandard sexual orientation of the president of the Russian Federation.’”

Here it is again, should you need a reminder:

Do not distribute it in Russia.

CNN reports that Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said of the photo: “You know how such things might hurt somebody’s feelings, but the President is quite resistant to such obscenity and learned how to not pay attention.”

That much is obvious, what with the 15-day prison sentence and fine of 3,000 rubles that hits anyone in Russia who would venture to go so far as to even retweet the image.

The image’s origins date back to as early as 2011, though it became common among those who would protest Putin’s 2013 “gay propaganda” law, which aims to protect children from the views of those with “nontraditional sexual relations.” Protests often found those arguing in favor of gay rights to be beaten or arrested.

Of course, there are plenty of other memes out there that might offend people who can’t bear the thought of Putin being associated with “nontraditional sexual relations.” Here’s a few below:

В РФ признали экстремистским плакат с накрашенными Путиным и Медведевым http://gordonua.com/news/worldnews/v-rf-priznali-ekstremistskim-plakat-s-nakrashennymi-putinym-i-medvedevym-181824.html 

Photo published for В РФ признали экстремистским плакат с накрашенными Путиным и Медведевым

В РФ признали экстремистским плакат с накрашенными Путиным и Медведевым

Картинка, на которой были изображены люди, похожие на президента РФ Владимира Путина и премьер-министра Дмитрия…

gordonua.com

View image on Twitter

#CIA’s Big Brother: The Multi-billion Dollar #US #SpyAgency You’ve Never Heard Of.

The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency’s capability is well-equipped to quell the violence of protesters, assist ICE in their deportation corralling, and track all those who belong to minority groups – Muslims, Black Lives Matter…

If you haven’t heard of the NGA, you can be forgiven. The NGA – the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency employs over 15,000 people in its shadows. The NGA is the cutting-edge spy agency that oversees the surveillance trade.

Forget the CIA and NSA. This newish acronymic organization – taking its new existence (started as the National Photographic Interpretation Center in WWII) in 2003 – is massive. Billions are granted for budget and in 2011, its main building measured “four football fields long and covers as much ground as two aircraft carriers,” costing $1.4 billion to complete.

James Bamford reported for Foreign Policy this month how even President Obama, five months into his presidency, didn’t know of this agency.

“So, what do you [do]?” Obama asked a customer at the Five Guys hamburger restaurant in Washington in May 2009.

“I work at NGA, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency,” he answered.

Obama, astonished, asked “So, explain to me exactly what this National Geospatial …” unable to recall the agency’s full name.

Bamford reports that “eight years after that videotape aired, the NGA remains by far the most shadowy member of the Big Five spy agencies, which include the CIA and the National Security Agency.”

BUT WHAT EXACTLY IS NGA?

In 2016, the agency purchased 99 acres in St. Louis to construct additional buildings at a cost of $1.75 billion to accommodate the growing workforce, with 3,000 employees already in the city.

“The NGA is to pictures what the NSA is to voices. Its principal function is to analyze the billions of images and miles of video captured by drones in the Middle East and spy satellites circling the globe. But because it has largely kept its ultra-high-resolution cameras pointed away from the United States, according to a variety of studies, the agency has never been involved in domestic spy scandals like its two far more famous siblings, the CIA and the NSA. However, there’s reason to believe that this will change under President Donald Trump.”

Before the name switch to NGA, the agency was largely tasked with cartography. In 2003 it was reborn for the purpose of its current mission: satellite surveillance. They work closely with the U.S. Air Force, collecting and analyzing aerial surveillance through the use of drones and other unmanned systems. They play a crucial role in gathering US intelligence, including the intelligence gathering and replication of Bin-Laden’s compound for SEAL Team Six.

“How precise were its measurements and analysis? The NGA figured out how many people lived at the compound, their gender, and even their heights,” author David Brown said.

Located at the main headquarters in Ft. Belvoir, Virginia, the NGA has two additional facilities in Missouri and St. Louis at Scott Air Force Base. Ironically, Lt. Gen. James Clapper, better known for his position as the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence and Director of National Intelligence, arrived at NGA (then known as NIMA) only 2 days after 9/11 occurred. Clapper recalls his ‘transformative’ years with the agency:

“The events of 9/11 changed all that. It became clear to me and to the other senior leaders of NIMA that we did not have the luxury of implementing change over a prolonged period of time. We were at war and we needed to act immediately. So, we held a long weekend offsite at which we dramatically altered the organization and outlook of the Agency. In hindsight, this was exactly the right thing to do. Our nation, and our Agency, was fully engaged in a war and we had no choice but to focus on doing the best we could.” 

 

SHOULD WE BE WORRIED?

Currently, the NGA is one agency set to benefit under the requested $70.3 billion laid out for the 2017 US Intelligence Community Budget. The Trump administration is set to bolster the amount, taking the total amount for the Pentagon’s 2017 fiscal budget to a whopping $541 billion. (The NGA falls under the Pentagon category as a “highly-classified Pentagon intelligence agency.”)

This leads to the worrying observation that the NGA may soon be granted more authority. The aerial system used against Iraq and Afghanistan may soon be used against the American people, Bamford reports:

“With the capability to watch an area of 10 or even 15 square miles at a time, it would take just two drones hovering over Manhattan to continuously observe and follow all outdoor human activity, night and day. It can zoom in on an object as small as a stick of butter on a plate and store up to 1 million terabytes of data a day. That capacity would allow analysts to look back in time over days, weeks, or months. Technology is in the works to enable drones to remain aloft for years at a time.”

The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency’s capability is well-equipped to quell the violence of protesters, assist ICE in their deportation corralling, and track all those who belong to minority groups – Muslims, Black Lives Matter… It isn’t farfetched, Bamford says. The CIA and NSA’s evil brother is more than capable of assisting the Trump administration in their quest, and the lack of domestic overhead spying legislation that currently stands allows for just that.

Here’s how a preemptive strike on North Korea would go down

Secretary of State Rex Tillerson made it official on Friday: The US is considering a preemptive military strike on North Korea. Recent missile tests show that North Korea really is practicing a so-called saturation attack that would seek to fire ballistic missiles with such volume that they defeat missile defenses and slaughter US and allied forces in Japan and South Korea.

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US President Donald Trump has apparently identified North Korea as his most serious external challenge, and he has reportedly declared the country the single greatest threat to the US. On Friday, Trump tweeted: “North Korea is behaving very badly. They have been ‘playing’ the United States for years.” He also blamed China, the North’s biggest ally, for not doing more to help.

In reality, taking out North Korea’s nuclear capabilities, or toppling the Kim regime, would pose serious risks to even the US military’s best platforms.

Business Insider spoke with Stratfor‘s Sim Tack, a senior analyst who is an expert on North Korea, to determine exactly how the US could carry out a crippling strike against the Hermit Kingdom.


First, a decision would need to be made.

 

Military action against North Korea wouldn’t be pretty. Civilians in South Korea, and possibly Japan, and US forces stationed in the Pacific would be likely to die in the undertaking no matter how smoothly things went.

In short, it’s not a decision any US commander in chief would make lightly.

But the US would have to choose between a full-scale destruction of North Korea’s nuclear facilities and ground forces or a quicker attack on only the most important nuclear facilities. The second option would focus more on crippling North Korea’s nuclear program and destroying key threats to the US and its allies.

Since a full-scale attack could lead to “mission creep that could pull the US into a longterm conflict in East Asia,” according to Tack of Stratfor, the US would most likely focus on a quick, surgical strike that would wipe out the bulk of North Korea’s nuclear forces.


Then, the opening salvo: A stealth air blitz and cruise missiles rock North Korea’s nuclear facilities.

 

The best tools the US could use against North Korea would be stealth aircraft like the F-22 and the B-2 bomber, Tack said.

The US would slowly but surely position submarines, Navy ships, and stealth aircraft at bases near North Korea in ways that avoid provoking the Hermit Kingdom’s suspicions.

Then, when the time was right, bombers would rip across the sky and ships would let loose with an awesome volley of firepower. The US already has considerable combat capability amassed in the region.

“Suddenly you’d read on the news that the US has conducted these airstrikes,” Tack said.

While the F-22 and the F-35 would certainly operate over North Korean missile-production sites, it really is a job for the B-2.

As a long-range stealth bomber with a huge ordnance capacity, the B-2 could drop 30,000-pound bombs on deep underground bunkers in North Korea – and they could do it from as far away as Guam or the continental US.


The first targets …

 

Foto: source Flickr/US Air Force

The initial targets would include nuclear reactors, missile-production facilities, and launching pads for intercontinental ballistic missiles, Tack said.

Cruise missiles would pour in from the sea, F-22s would target North Korea’s rudimentary air defenses, and B-2s would pound every known missile site.

Planes like the F-35 and the F-22 would frantically hunt down mobile missile launchers, which can hide all over North Korea’s mountainous terrain. In the event that North Korea does get off a missile, the US and South Korea have layered missile defenses that would attempt to shoot it out of the sky.


Next, the US would try to limit North Korean retaliation.

 

Once the US has committed the initial strike against North Korea, how does Kim Jong Un respond?

Even with its nuclear facilities in ashes and most of its command and control destroyed, “North Korea has a lot of options,” Tack said. “They have their massive, massive conventional artillery options that can start firing at South Korea in a split second.”

But as the graphic below shows, most North Korean artillery can’t reach Seoul, the South Korean capital.

Additionally, Seoul has significant underground bunkers and infrastructure to quickly shield its citizens, though some measure of damage to the city would be unavoidable.

North Korea artillery

Foto:

According to Tack, much of this artillery would instead fire on the demilitarized zone between the two Koreas, detonating mines so North Korean ground forces could push through. Also within range would be US forces near the DMZ.

Some 25,000 American troops are stationed in South Korea, and they would face grave danger from North Korea’s vast artillery installations.

But the North Korean artillery isn’t top of the line. It could focus on slamming US forces, or it could focus on hitting Seoul, but splitting fire between the two targets would limit the impact of its longer-range systems.

Additionally, as the artillery starts to fire, it becomes an exposed target for US aircraft.


The next phase of the battle would be underwater.

 

North Korea has a submarine that can launch nuclear ballistic missiles, which would represent a big risk to US forces as it can sail outside the range of established missile defenses.

Fortunately for the US, the best submarine hunters in the world sail with the US Navy.

Helicopters would drop special listening buoys, destroyers would use their advanced radars, and US subs would listen for anything unusual in the deep. North Korea’s antique submarine would hardly be a match for the combined efforts of the US, South Korea, and Japan.

While the submarine would greatly complicate the operation, it would most likely find itself at the bottom of the ocean before it could do any meaningful damage.


What happens if Kim Jong Un is killed?

 

“Decapitation,” or the removal of the Kim regime, would be a huge blow to the fiercely autocratic Hermit Kingdom.

Kim Jong Un has reportedly engaged in a vicious campaign to execute senior officials with packs of dogs, mortar fire, and antiaircraft guns for a simple reason, according to Tack: They have ties to China.

Kim’s removal of anyone senior with ties to China means he has consolidated power within his country to a degree that makes him necessary to the country’s functioning.

Without a leader, North Korean forces would face a severe blow to their morale as well as their command structure, but it wouldn’t end the fight.

“Technically North Korea is under the rule of their ‘forever leader’ Kim Il Sung,” Tack said, adding that “a decapitation strike wouldn’t guarantee that the structures below him wouldn’t fall apart, but it would be a damn tricky problem for those that remain after him.”

North Koreans aren’t shy about putting their leader first, however, and at the first indication of an attack, Kim would most likely be tucked away in a bunker deep underground during the attack.


Then the US defends.

 

“If North Korea doesn’t retaliate, they’ve lost capability and look weak,” Tack said.

Indeed, few would expect North Korea to go quietly after suffering even a crippling attack.

Through massive tunnels bored under the DMZ, North Korea would try to pour ground troops into the South.

“The ground-warfare element is a big part of this,” Tack said. “I think that the most likely way that would play out would be the fight in the DMZ area,” where the US would not try to invade North Korea but rather would defend its position in the South.

Though North Korea’s air force is small and outdated, it jets would need to be a target of the US and allied forces.


Meanwhile …

 

US special operations forces, after North Korea’s air defenses have been destroyed, would parachute in with the goal of destroying or deactivating mobile launchers and other offensive equipment.

The US would face a big challenge in trying to hunt down some 200 missile launchers throughout North Korea, some of which have treads to enter very difficult terrain where US recon planes would struggle to spot them.

It would be the work of US special forces to establish themselves at key logistical junctures, observe the North Koreans’ movements, and then relay that to US air assets.


So how does this all end?

 

North Korea is neither a house of cards nor an impenetrable fortress.

Additionally, the resolve of the North Koreans remains a mystery. North Korea successfully estimated that the international community would be unwilling to intervene as it quietly became a nuclear power, but that calculation could become its undoing.

North Korea would most likely launch cyberattacks, possibly shutting down parts of the US or allies’ power grids, but US Cyber Command would prepare for that.

North Korea would most likely destroy some US military installations, lay waste to some small portion of Seoul, and get a handful of missiles fired – but again, US and allied planners would stand ready for that.

In the end, it would be a brutal, bloody conflict, but Tack said even the propaganda-saturated North Koreans must be aware of their disadvantages.

Even after a devastating missile attack, some of North Korea’s nuclear stockpile would most likely remain hidden. Some element of the remaining North Korean forces could stage a retaliation, but what would be the point?

“If they chose to go the route of conducting a large-scale retaliation, they’re inviting a continuation of the conflict that eventually they cannot win … Nobody in this whole game is going to believe that North Korea can win a war against the US, South Korea, and Japan,” Tack concluded.

If A Nuclear Bomb Is Dropped On Your City, Here’s Where You Should Run And Hide

nuke

  • People who survive a nuclear blast may be exposed to radioactive ash and dust called fallout.
  • Finding a good shelter as soon as possible and going inside is critical to surviving fallout.
  • A scientist has come up with a strategy for when and whether to move to a better fallout shelter.

President Trump has egged on a new arms race. Russia violated weapons treaties to upgrade its nuclear arsenal. North Korea is developing long-range missiles and practicing for nuclear war — and the US military is considering preemptive attacks on the isolated nation’s military facilities.

Meanwhile, nuclear terrorism and dirty bombs remain a sobering threat.

Though these events are unlikely to trigger the last-ditch option of nuclear war, let alone a blast in your neighborhood, they are very concerning.

So you might be wondering, “If I survive a nuclear-bomb attack, what should I do?”

Michael Dillon, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researcher, crunched the numbers and helped figure out just that in a 2014 study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

Likewise, government agencies and other organizations have also explored the harrowing question and came up with detailed recommendations and response plans.

The scenario

New York

TTstudio/Shutterstock

You are in a large city that has just been subjected to a single, low-yield nuclear detonation, between 0.1 and 10 kilotons.

This is much less powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima — about 15 kilotons. However, it’s not unlikely when looking at weapons like the new B61-12 gravity bomb, which is built by the US, maxes out at 50 kilotons, and can be dialed down to 0.3 kilotons. (Russia and Pakistan are working on similar so-called “tactical” nuclear weapons.)

Studieshave shown that you and up to 100,000 of your fellow citizens can be saved — that is, if you keep your wits about and radiation exposure low enough.

One of your biggest and most immediate goals is to avoid nuclear fallout.

How to avoid fallout radiation

Fallout is a mess of bomb material, soil, and debris that is vaporized, made radioactive, and sprinkled as dust and ash across the landscape by prevailing winds. (In New York City, for example, a fallout zone would spread eastward.)

radioactive fallout zones

FEMA

The best thing to do is to find a good place to hide — the more dense material between you and the outside world, the better — then wait until the rescuers can make their way to help you.

The US government recommends hiding in a nearby building, but not all of them provide much shelter from nuclear fallout.

Poor shelters, which include about 20% of houses, are constructed of lightweight materials and lack basements. The best shelters are thick brick or concrete and lack windows. Like a bomb shelter.

This infographic from a government guide to the aftermath of nuclear attacks gives a rough idea on what makes a building a good or bad place to hide from fallout:

nuclear fallout shelter protection

Levels of protection from radiation that various buildings and locations offer. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/FEMA

Hiding in the sub-basement of a brick five-story apartment building, for example, should expose you to just 1/200 of the amount of fallout radiation outside.

Meanwhile, hanging out in the living room of your one-story, wood-frame house will only cut down the radiation by half, which — if you are next to a nuclear explosion — will not do much to help you.

So, what do you do if there isn’t a good shelter right near you? Should you stay in a “poor” shelter, or risk exposure to find a better one? And how long should you wait?

Should you stay or should you go?

nuclear fallout escape dillon prsa

M.B. Dillon/Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences

In his 2014 study, Dillon developed models to determine your best options. While the answer depends on how far away you are from the blast, since that will determine when the fallout arrives, there are some general rules to follow.

If you are immediately next to or in a solid shelter when the bomb goes off, stay there until the rescuers come to evacuate you to less radioactive vistas.

If you aren’t already in a bomb shelter, but know a good shelter is about five minutes away — maybe a large apartment building with a basement that you can see a few blocks away — his calculations suggest hoofing it over there quickly and staying in place.

But if the nice, thick-walled building would take about 15 minutes travel time, it’s better to hole up in the flimsy shelter for awhile — but you should probably leave for a better shelter after roughly an hour (and maybe pick up some beers and sodas on the way: A study in the ’50s found they taste fine after a blast).

This is because some of the most intense fallout radiation has subsided by then, though you still want to reduce your exposure.

Other fallout advice

Below are some other guidelines that Dillon compiled from other studies and are based on how decent your first and second shelters are:ideal shelter nuclear fallout moving times dillon prsa

M.B. Dillon/Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences

One of the big advantages of the approach that this paper uses is that, to decide on a strategy, evacuation officials need to consider only the radiation levels near shelters and along evacuation routes — the overall pattern of the radioactive death-cloud does not factor into the models. This means decisions can be made quickly and without much communication or central organization (which may be spare in the minutes and hours after a blast).

 

Russia court to consider Jehovah’s Witnesses ban! About Time!

A young woman from the Jehovah's Witnesses is baptised on 20 July 2003 in Prague

Russia’s justice ministry has called for a ban on the Jehovah’s Witnesses, a Christian movement that zealously seeks converts and rejects military service.

The ministry has asked Russia’s supreme court to close the group’s headquarters and stop its 175,000 Russian members sharing “extremist” literature.

A spokesman for the group called the proposed ban “persecuting worshippers just for manifesting their faith”.

Some Russian regions have already shut down branches of Jehovah’s Witnesses.

According to the justice ministry, the Jehovah’s Witnesses’ activities “violate Russia’s law on combating extremism”.

The authorities object to pamphlets deemed to incite hatred against other religious groups, mainly for proclaiming Jehovah’s Witnesses as followers of the only “true” faith.

One quotes the novelist Leo Tolstoy, describing the doctrine of the Russian Orthodox Church as superstition and sorcery, the BBC’s Sarah Rainsford reports from Moscow.

The group was registered in Russia in 1991.

Thousands of Jehovah’s Witnesses were deported to Siberia during Joseph Stalin’s 30-year reign of terror. Other Christian groups were also persecuted at the time.

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