Fun!

This #Video, goes out, to all the #Flat #Earthers out there! #LMFAO

We here at Notoriously White, Now and then, like to keep all the, sub human, No IQ’ers informed, so sit down open a beer and enjoy these video’s on Flat Earthers. I know the Smart users out there will appreciate this informative video collection!!

 

Testing Flattards – Part 1

Testing Flattards – Part 2

MinusIQ | The pill to lower your IQ permanently

Published on 27 Nov 2016

Part one in a series taking a wry look at the idiotic belief that the Earth is flat, and how that stacks up against reality. This part takes a look at some fundamental geometric problems with flattards’ favourite “map”, an Azimuthal Equidistant Projection.

Guidance: Contains some mild language within a comedy context.

This video also contains specially composed music by AlanKey86. You can listen to more of Alan’s music over on his channel:
https://www.youtube.com/user/AlanKey86

Check out Martymer 81’s here:
https://www.youtube.com/user/Martymer81

Check out Kraut and Tea here:
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCr_Q…

Published on 22 Jan 2017

Part two in a series taking a wry look at the idiotic belief that the Earth is flat, and how that stacks up against reality. This part looks skyward as we consider basic observations of the stars, and find out where the Sun would be if it were a flying spotlight.

Guidance: Contains some mild language within a comedy context.

This video also contains specially composed music by AlanKey86. You can listen to more of Alan’s music over on his channel:
https://www.youtube.com/user/AlanKey86

Curious about the night sky? Grab yourself a copy of the open source planetarium, Stellarium:
http://stellarium.sourceforge.net/

Published on 19 Mar 2013

The world’s a much brighter place when you’re not too bright for it.
http://www.sleepthinker.com
http://www.facebook.com/sleepthinker

There Is Sound In Space, Thanks To Gravitational Waves

Merging black holes are one class of objects that creates gravitational waves of certain frequencies and amplitudes. Thanks to detectors like LIGO, we can 'hear' these sounds as they occur.

It’s long been said that there’s no sound in space, and that’s true, to a point. Conventional sound requires a medium to travel through, and is created when particles compress-and-rarify, making anything from a loud “bang” for a single pulse to a consistent tone for repeating patterns. In space, where there are so few particles that any such signals die away, even solar flares, supernovae, black hole mergers, and other cosmic catastrophes go silent before they’re ever heard. But there’s another type of compression-and-rarefaction that doesn’t require anything other than the fabric of space itself to travel through: gravitational waves. Thanks to the first positive detection results from LIGO, we’re hearing the Universe for the very first time.

Two merging black holes. The inspiral results in the black holes coming together, while gravitational waves carry the excess energy away. The background spacetime is distorted as a result.

Two merging black holes. The inspiral results in the black holes coming together, while gravitational waves carry the excess energy away. The background spacetime is distorted as a result.

Gravitational waves were something that needed to exist for our theory of gravity to be consistent, according to General Relativity. Unlike in Newton’s gravity, where any two masses orbiting one another would remain in that configuration forever, Einstein’s theory predicted that over long enough times, gravitational orbits would decay. For something like the Earth orbiting the Sun, you’d never live to experience it: it would take 10^150 years for Earth to spiral into the Sun. But for more extreme systems, like two neutron stars orbiting one another, we could actually see the orbits decaying over time. In order to conserve energy, Einstein’s theory of gravity predicted that energy must be carried away in the form of gravitational waves.

As two neutron stars orbit each other, Einstein's theory of general relativity predicts orbital decay, and the emission of gravitational radiation.

As two neutron stars orbit each other, Einstein’s theory of General Relativity predicts orbital decay, and the emission of gravitational radiation. The former has been observed very precisely for many years, as evidenced by how the points and the line (GR prediction) match up so very well.

These waves are maddeningly weak, and their effects on the objects in spacetime are stupendously tiny. But if you know how to listen for them — just as the components of a radio know how to listen for those long-frequency light waves — you can detect these signals and hear them just as you’d hear any other sound. With an amplitude and a frequency, they’re no different from any other wave. General Relativity makes explicit predictions for what these waves should sound like, with the largest wave-generating signals being the easiest ones to detect. The largest amplitude sounds all? It’s the inspiral and merging “chirp” of two black holes that spiral into one another.

In September of 2015, just days after advanced LIGO began collecting data for the first time, a large, unusual signal was spotted. It surprised everyone, because it would have carried so much energy in just a short, 200 millisecond burst, that it would have outshone all the stars in the observable Universe combined. Yet that signal turned out to be robust, and the energy from that burst came from two black holes — of 36 and 29 solar masses — merging into a single 62 solar mass one. Those missing three solar masses? They were converted into pure energy: gravitational waves rippling through the fabric of space. That was the first event LIGO ever detected.

The signal from LIGO of the first robust detection of gravitational waves. The waveform is not just a visualization; it's representative of what you'd actually hear if you listened properly.

The signal from LIGO of the first robust detection of gravitational waves. The waveform is not just a visualization; it’s representative of what you’d actually hear if you listened properly.

Now it’s over a year later, and LIGO is presently on its second run. Not only have other black hole-black hole mergers been detected, but the future of gravitational wave astronomy is bright, as new detectors will open up our ears to new types of sounds. Space interferometers, like LISA, will have longer baselines and will hear lower frequency sounds: sounds like neutron star mergers, feasting supermassive black holes, and mergers with highly unequal masses. Pulsar timing arrays can measure even lower frequencies, like orbits that take years to complete, such as the supermassive black hole pair: OJ 287. And combinations of new techniques will look for the oldest gravitational waves of all, the relic waves predicted by cosmic inflation, all the way back at the beginning of our Universe.

Gravitational waves generated by cosmic inflation are the farthest signal back in time humanity can conceive of potentially detecting. Collaborations like BICEP2 and NANOgrav may indirectly do this in the coming decades.

Gravitational waves generated by cosmic inflation are the farthest signal back in time humanity can conceive of potentially detecting. Collaborations like BICEP2 and NANOgrav may indirectly do this in the coming decades.

There’s so much to hear, and we’ve only just started listening for the first time. Thankfully, astrophysicist Janna Levin — author of the fantastic book, Black Hole Blues and Other Songs from Outer Space — is poised to give the public lecture at Perimeter Institute tonight, May 3rd, at 7 PM Eastern / 4 PM Pacific, and it will be live-streamed here and live-blogged by me in real time! Join us then for even more about this incredible topic, and I can’t wait to hear her talk.

 

The Universe is out there, waiting for you to discover it

Ethan SiegelEthan Siegel, Contributor

Merging black holes are one class of objects that creates gravitational waves of certain frequencies and amplitudes. Thanks to detectors like LIGO, we can 'hear' these sounds as they occur.

Merging black holes are one class of objects that creates gravitational waves of certain frequencies and amplitudes. Thanks to detectors like LIGO, we can ‘hear’ these sounds as they occur.

It’s long been said that there’s no sound in space, and that’s true, to a point. Conventional sound requires a medium to travel through, and is created when particles compress-and-rarify, making anything from a loud “bang” for a single pulse to a consistent tone for repeating patterns. In space, where there are so few particles that any such signals die away, even solar flares, supernovae, black hole mergers, and other cosmic catastrophes go silent before they’re ever heard. But there’s another type of compression-and-rarefaction that doesn’t require anything other than the fabric of space itself to travel through: gravitational waves. Thanks to the first positive detection results from LIGO, we’re hearing the Universe for the very first time.

Two merging black holes. The inspiral results in the black holes coming together, while gravitational waves carry the excess energy away. The background spacetime is distorted as a result.

Two merging black holes. The inspiral results in the black holes coming together, while gravitational waves carry the excess energy away. The background spacetime is distorted as a result.

Gravitational waves were something that needed to exist for our theory of gravity to be consistent, according to General Relativity. Unlike in Newton’s gravity, where any two masses orbiting one another would remain in that configuration forever, Einstein’s theory predicted that over long enough times, gravitational orbits would decay. For something like the Earth orbiting the Sun, you’d never live to experience it: it would take 10^150 years for Earth to spiral into the Sun. But for more extreme systems, like two neutron stars orbiting one another, we could actually see the orbits decaying over time. In order to conserve energy, Einstein’s theory of gravity predicted that energy must be carried away in the form of gravitational waves.

As two neutron stars orbit each other, Einstein's theory of general relativity predicts orbital decay, and the emission of gravitational radiation.

As two neutron stars orbit each other, Einstein’s theory of General Relativity predicts orbital decay, and the emission of gravitational radiation. The former has been observed very precisely for many years, as evidenced by how the points and the line (GR prediction) match up so very well.

These waves are maddeningly weak, and their effects on the objects in spacetime are stupendously tiny. But if you know how to listen for them — just as the components of a radio know how to listen for those long-frequency light waves — you can detect these signals and hear them just as you’d hear any other sound. With an amplitude and a frequency, they’re no different from any other wave. General Relativity makes explicit predictions for what these waves should sound like, with the largest wave-generating signals being the easiest ones to detect. The largest amplitude sounds all? It’s the inspiral and merging “chirp” of two black holes that spiral into one another.

In September of 2015, just days after advanced LIGO began collecting data for the first time, a large, unusual signal was spotted. It surprised everyone, because it would have carried so much energy in just a short, 200 millisecond burst, that it would have outshone all the stars in the observable Universe combined. Yet that signal turned out to be robust, and the energy from that burst came from two black holes — of 36 and 29 solar masses — merging into a single 62 solar mass one. Those missing three solar masses? They were converted into pure energy: gravitational waves rippling through the fabric of space. That was the first event LIGO ever detected.

The signal from LIGO of the first robust detection of gravitational waves. The waveform is not just a visualization; it's representative of what you'd actually hear if you listened properly.

The signal from LIGO of the first robust detection of gravitational waves. The waveform is not just a visualization; it’s representative of what you’d actually hear if you listened properly.

Now it’s over a year later, and LIGO is presently on its second run. Not only have other black hole-black hole mergers been detected, but the future of gravitational wave astronomy is bright, as new detectors will open up our ears to new types of sounds. Space interferometers, like LISA, will have longer baselines and will hear lower frequency sounds: sounds like neutron star mergers, feasting supermassive black holes, and mergers with highly unequal masses. Pulsar timing arrays can measure even lower frequencies, like orbits that take years to complete, such as the supermassive black hole pair: OJ 287. And combinations of new techniques will look for the oldest gravitational waves of all, the relic waves predicted by cosmic inflation, all the way back at the beginning of our Universe.

Gravitational waves generated by cosmic inflation are the farthest signal back in time humanity can conceive of potentially detecting. Collaborations like BICEP2 and NANOgrav may indirectly do this in the coming decades.

Gravitational waves generated by cosmic inflation are the farthest signal back in time humanity can conceive of potentially detecting. Collaborations like BICEP2 and NANOgrav may indirectly do this in the coming decades.

There’s so much to hear, and we’ve only just started listening for the first time. Thankfully, astrophysicist Janna Levin — author of the fantastic book, Black Hole Blues and Other Songs from Outer Space — is poised to give the public lecture at Perimeter Institute tonight, May 3rd, at 7 PM Eastern / 4 PM Pacific, and it will be live-streamed here and live-blogged by me in real time! Join us then for even more about this incredible topic, and I can’t wait to hear her talk.


The live blog will begin a few minutes prior to 4:00 PM Pacific; join us here and follow along!

The warping of spacetime, in the General Relativistic picture, by gravitational masses.

The warping of spacetime, in the General Relativistic picture, by gravitational masses.

3:50 PM: It’s ten minutes until showtime, and to celebrate, here are ten fun facts (or as many as we can get in) about gravity and gravitational waves.

1.) Instead of “action at a distance,” where an invisible force is exerted between masses, general relativity says that matter and energy warp the fabric of spacetime, and that warped spacetime is what manifests itself as gravitation.

2.) Instead of traveling at infinite speed, gravitation only travels at the speed of light.

3.) This is important, because it means that if any changes occur to a massive object’s position, configuration, motion, etc., the ensuing gravitational changes only propagate at the speed of light.

Computer simulation of two merging black holes producing gravitational waves.

Computer simulation of two merging black holes producing gravitational waves.

3:54 PM: 4.) This means that gravitational waves, for example, can only propagate at the speed of light. When we “detect” a gravitational wave, we’re detecting the signal from when that mass configuration changed.

5.) The first signal detected by LIGO occurred at a distance of approximately 1.3 billion light years. The Universe was about 10% younger than it is today when that merger occurred.

Ripples in spacetime are what gravitational waves are.

Ripples in spacetime are what gravitational waves are.

6.) If gravitation traveled at infinite speed, planetary orbits would be completely unstable. The fact that planets move in ellipses around the Sun mandates that if General Relativity is correct, the speed of gravity must equal the speed of light to an accuracy of about 1%.

3:57 PM: 7.) There are many, many more gravitational wave signals than what LIGO has seen so far; we’ve only detected the easiest signal there is to detect.

8.) What makes a signal “easy” to see is a combination of its amplitude, which is to say, how much it can deform a path-length, or a distance in space, as well as its frequency.

A simplified illustration of LIGO's laser interferometer system.

A simplified illustration of LIGO’s laser interferometer system.

9.) Because LIGO’s arms are only 4 kilometers long, and the mirrors reflect the light thousands of times (but no more), that means LIGO can only detect frequencies of 1 Hz or faster.

Earlier this year, LIGO announced the first-ever direct detection of gravitational waves. By building a gravitational wave observatory in space, we may be able to reach the sensitivities necessary to detect a deliberate alien signal.

Earlier this year, LIGO announced the first-ever direct detection of gravitational waves. By building a gravitational wave observatory in space, we may be able to reach the sensitivities necessary to detect a deliberate alien signal.

10.) For slower signals, we need longer lever-arms and greater sensitivities, and that will mean going to space. That’s the future of gravitational wave astronomy!

4:01 PM: We made it! Time to begin and introduce Janna Levin! (Pronounce “JAN-na”, not “YON-na”, if you were wondering.)

The inspiral and merger of the first pair of black holes ever directly observed.

The inspiral and merger of the first pair of black holes ever directly observed.

4:05 PM: Here’s the big announcement/shot: the first direct recording of the first gravitational wave. It took 100 years after Einstein first put forth general relativity, and she’s playing a recording! Make sure you go and listen! What does it mean to “hear” a sound in space, after all, and why is this a sound? That’s the purpose, she says, of her talk.

The galaxies Maffei 1 and Maffei 2, in the plane of the Milky Way, can only be revealed by seeing through the Milky Way's dust. Despite being some of the closest large galaxies of all, they were not discovered until the mid-20th century.

The galaxies Maffei 1 and Maffei 2, in the plane of the Milky Way, can only be revealed by seeing through the Milky Way’s dust. Despite being some of the closest large galaxies of all, they were not discovered until the mid-20th century.

4:08 PM: If you consider what’s out there in the Universe, we had no way of knowing any of this at the time of Galileo. We were thinking about sunspots, Saturn, etc., and were completely unable to conceive of the great cosmic scales or distances. Forget about “conceiving of other galaxies,” we hadn’t conceived of any of this!

 

4:10 PM: Janna is showing one of my favorite videos (that I recognize) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey! They took a survey of 400,000 of the nearest galaxies and mapped them in three dimensions. This is what our (nearby) Universe looks like, and as you can see, it really is mostly empty space!

The (modern) Morgan–Keenan spectral classification system, with the temperature range of each star class shown above it, in kelvin.

The (modern) Morgan–Keenan spectral classification system, with the temperature range of each star class shown above it, in kelvin.

4:12 PM: She makes a really great point that she totally glosses over: only about 1-in-1000 stars will ever become a black hole. There are over 400 stars within 30 light years of us, and zero of them are O or B stars, and zero of them have become black holes. These bluest, most massive and shortest-lived stars are the only ones that will grow into black holes.

The identical behavior of a ball falling to the floor in an accelerated rocket (left) and on Earth (right) is a demonstration of Einstein's equivalence principle.

The identical behavior of a ball falling to the floor in an accelerated rocket (left) and on Earth (right) is a demonstration of Einstein’s equivalence principle.

4:15 PM: When you consider “where did Einstein’s theory come from,” Janna makes a great point: the idea of the equivalence principle. If you have gravity, you might consider that you feel “heavy” in your chair, for example. But this reaction that you have is the exact same reaction you’d feel if you were accelerating, rather than gravitating. It’s not the gravity that you feel, it’s the effects of the matter around you!

4:17 PM: The band OKGO did a video flying in the vomit comet. Janna can’t show the whole thing, with audio, for copyright reasons, and highly recommends it. Luckily for you, thanks to the internet… here it is! Enjoy at your leisure!

To travel once around Earth's orbit in a path around the Sun is a journey of 940 million kilometers.

To travel once around Earth’s orbit in a path around the Sun is a journey of 940 million kilometers.

4:19 PM: There’s another huge revelation for gravity: the way we understand how things work comes from watching how things fall. The Moon is “falling” around the Earth; Newton realized that. But the Earth is falling around the Sun; the Sun is “falling” around the galaxy; and atoms “fall” here on Earth. But the same rule applies to them all, so long as they’re all in free-fall. Amazing!

Black holes are something the Universe wasn't born with, but has grown to acquire over time. They now dominate the Universe's entropy.

Black holes are something the Universe wasn’t born with, but has grown to acquire over time. They now dominate the Universe’s entropy.

4:21 PM: Here’s a fun revelation: stop thinking of a black hole as collapsed, crushed matter, even though that might be how it originated. Instead, think about it as simply a region of empty space with strong gravitational properties. In fact, if all you did was assign “mass” to this region of space, that would perfectly define a Schwarzschild (non-charged, non-rotating) black hole.

The supermassive black hole (Sgr A*) at the center of our galaxy is shrouded in a dusty, gaseous environment. X-rays and infrared observations can partially see through it, but radio waves might finally be able to resolve it directly.

The supermassive black hole (Sgr A*) at the center of our galaxy is shrouded in a dusty, gaseous environment. X-rays and infrared observations can partially see through it, but radio waves might finally be able to resolve it directly.

4:23 PM: If you were to fall into a black hole the mass of the Sun, you’d have about a microsecond, from crossing the event horizon (according to Janna) until you were crushed to death at the singularity. This is consistent with what I once calculated, where, for the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, we’d have about 10 seconds. Since the Milky Way’s black hole is 4,000,000 times as massive as our Sun, the math kind of works out!

Joseph Weber with his early-stage gravitational wave detector, known as a Weber bar.

Joseph Weber with his early-stage gravitational wave detector, known as a Weber bar.

4:26 PM: How would you detect a gravitational wave? Honestly, it would be like being on the surface of the ocean; you’d bob up and down along the surface of space, and there was a big argument in the community as to whether these waves were real or not. It wasn’t until Joe Weber came along and decided to try and measure these gravitational waves, using a phenomenal device — an aluminum bar — that would vibrate if a rippling wave “plucked” the bar very slightly.

Weber saw many such signals that he identified with gravitational waves, but these, unfortunately, were never reproduced or verified. He was, for all of his cleverness, not a very careful experimenter.

4:29 PM: There’s a good question from Jon Groubert on twitter: “I have a question about something she said – there is something inside a black hole, isn’t there? Like a heavy neutron star.” There should be a singularity, which is either point-like (for a non-rotating singularity) or a one-dimensional ring (for a rotating one), but not condensed, collapsed, three-dimensional matter.

Why not?

Because in order to remain as a structure, a force needs to propagate and be transmitted between particles. But particles can only transmit forces at the speed of light. But nothing, not even light, can move “outward” towards the exit of a black hole; everything moves towards the singularity. And so nothing can hold itself up, and everything collapses into the singularity. Sad, but the physics makes this inevitable.

From left to right: the two LIGO detectors (in Hanford and Livingston, US) and the Virgo detector (Cascina, Italie).

From left to right: the two LIGO detectors (in Hanford and Livingston, US) and the Virgo detector (Cascina, Italie).

4:32 PM: After Weber’s failures (and fall from fame), the idea of LIGO came along by Rai Weiss in the 1970s. It took more than 40 years for LIGO to come to fruition (and over 1,000 people to make it happen), but the most fantastic thing was that it was experimentally possible. By making two very long lever-arms, you could see the effect of a passing gravitational wave.

 

 

4:34 PM: This is my favorite video illustrating what a gravitational wave does. It moves space itself (and everything in it) back and forth by a tiny amount. If you have a laser interferometer set up (like LIGO), it can detect these vibrations. But if you were close enough and your ears were sensitive enough, you could feel this motion in your eardrum!

4:35 PM: I’ve got some really good headphones, Perimeter, but unfortunately I can’t hear the different gravitational wave model signals that Janna is playing!

The LIGO Hanford Observatory for detecting gravitational waves in Washington State, USA.

The LIGO Hanford Observatory for detecting gravitational waves in Washington State, USA.

4:38 PM: It’s funny to think that this is the world’s most advanced vacuum, inside the LIGO detectors. Yet birds, rats, mice, etc., are all under there, and they chew their way into almost the vacuum chamber that the light travels through. But if the vacuum had been broken (it’s been constant since 1998), the experiment would have been over. In Louisiana, hunters shot at the LIGO tunnels. It’s horrifying how sensitive and expensive this equipment is, but yet how fragile it all is, too.

4:41 PM: Janna is doing a really great job telling this story in a suspenseful but very human way. We only saw the final few orbits of two orbiting black holes, drastically slowed down in the above movie. They were only a few hundred kilometers apart, those final four orbits took 200 millisecond, and that’s the entirety of the signal that LIGO saw.

 

4:43 PM: If you’re having trouble listening/hearing the events in the talk, listen to this video (above), in both natural pitch and increased pitch. The smaller black holes (roughly 8 and 13 solar masses) from December 26, 2015, are both quieter and higher pitched than the larger ones (29 and 36 solar masses) from September 14th in the same year.

4:46 PM: Just a little correction: Janna says this was the most powerful event ever detected since the Big Bang. And that’s only technically true, because of the limits of our detection.

When we get any black hole mergers, approximately 10% of the mass of the least massive black hole in a merger pair gets converted into pure energy via Einstein’s E = mc2. 29 solar masses is a lot, but there are going to be black holes of hundreds of millions or even billions of solar masses that have merged together. And we have proof.

The most massive black hole binary signal ever seen: OJ 287.

The most massive black hole binary signal ever seen: OJ 287.

4:49 PM: This is OJ 287, where a 150 million solar mass black hole orbits an ~18 billion solar mass black hole. It takes 11 years for a complete orbit to occur, and General Relativity predicts a precession of 270 degrees per orbit here, compared to 43 arc seconds per century for Mercury.

4:51 PM: Janna did an incredible job ending on time here; I’ve never seen an hour talk actually end after 50 minutes at a Perimeter public lecture. Wow!

The Earth as viewed from a composite of NASA satellite images from space in the early 2000s.

The Earth as viewed from a composite of NASA satellite images from space in the early 2000s.

4:52 PM: What would happen if Earth got sucked up into a black hole? (Q&A question from Max.) Although Janna’s giving a great answer, I’d like to point out that, from a gravitational wave point of view, Earth would be shredded apart, and we’d get a “smeared out” wave signal, that would be a much noisier, static-y signal. Once Earth got swallowed, the event horizon would grow just a tiny bit, as an extra three millionths of a solar mass increased the black hole’s radius by just that tiny, corresponding amount.

4:55 PM: What a fun talk, a great and snappy Q&A session, and a great experience overall. Enjoy it again and again, because the video of the talk is now embedded as a permalink. And thanks for tuning in!

“2 HOURS” ― #Award Winning #Zombie Short #Film

Published on 29 Sep 2012

2 HOURS is an award winning zombie short horror film which has screened at over 30 film festivals around the world. The film was shot with a skeleton crew ranging from 1-3 people, using a Canon T2i with just two lenses. Made with zero budget, this film is the result of good friends, dedication, and a passion for filmmaking.

A nameless survivor is bitten and infected with the virus, a beautiful gift to the world. With only 2 HOURS to find the missing survivors, he must move quickly before the virus spreads too far.

Director: Michael Ballif
Writer: Josh Merrill
Producers: Michael Ballif & Josh Merrill
Executive Producer: Zach Wall
Starring: Josh Merrill & Brooke Hemsath
Production Designer: Allen Bradford
Original Score: Keaton Anderson
Editor/VFX: Michael Ballif
Special Make-Up FX: Allen Bradford & Brian Nuzman
Sound: Josh Merrill

Like 2 Hours? CHECK OUT OUR NEW HORROR SERIES:

http://www.youtube.com/witchingseason…

Get the 2 Hours theme song on iTunes:

https://itunes.apple.com/album/beauti

▶ Main Website: http://2hoursthemovie.com
▶ Facebook: http://facebook.com/2hoursthemovie
▶ Youtube: http://youtube.com/2hoursthemovie
▶ IMDB: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2382004/
▶ Contact e-mail: 2hoursthemovie@gmail.com

Film Festival Screenings & Awards:

Awards:
Best Short – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Horror – Phoenix Comicon Film Festival (AZ)
Best Zombie Short Film – Fear Fete Film Festival (MS)
Best Directing – Hibulb Cultural Center Film Festival (WA)
Online Audience Choice – A Night Of Horror Film Festival (AU)
Best Intl. Filmmaker – Staffordshire Film Festival (UK)
Best Visual Effects – UVU Film Festival (UT)
Best Sound – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Acting (2nd Place) – Hibulb Cultural Center Film Festival (WA)
Best Short (2nd Place) – Sci-Fi on the Rock Film Festival (CA)
Best Short (3rd Place) – Hibulb Cultural Center Film Festival (WA)

Nominations:
Best Narrative Short – Phoenix Comicon Film Festival (AZ)
Best of Festival – Phoenix Comicon Film Festival (AZ)
Best Horror – Phoenix Comicon Film Festival (AZ)
Best Short Film – Sacramento Horror Film Festival (CA)
Best Screenplay – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Musical Score – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Cinematography – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Editing – Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
Best Musical Score – Salty Horror Film Festival (UT)
Best Sound – The Indie Horror Film Festival (IL)
Best Special FX – The Indie Horror Film Festival (IL)
Best Action/Thriller – Bare Bones International Film Festival (OK)
Best Zombie Film – Bare Bones International Film Festival (OK)
Best Sound – UVU Film Festival (UT)
Best Directing – UVU Film Festival (UT)
Best Acting – UVU Film Festival (UT)
Best Short Film – Fear Fete Film Festival (MS)
Best Directing – Fear Fete Film Festival (MS)
Best Acting – Fear Fete Film Festival (MS)

Official Selections:
Macabre Faire Film Festival (NY)
The Indie Horror Film Festival (IL)
Short Sweet Film Fest (OH)
Sci-Fi on the Rock Film Festival (CA)
Salty Horror Film Festival (UT)
Logan Film Festival (UT)
Bare Bones International Film Festival (OK)
Capital City Film Festival (MI)
Crossroads Film Festival (MS)
Mad Monster Party Film Festival (NC)
Horror Realm Convention (PA)
Horror in the Hammer Film Festival (CA)
Phoenix Comicon Film Festival (AZ)
Virginia Independent Horror Film Festival (VA)
A Night of Horror Film Festival (AU)
TromaDance Film Festival (NJ)
Ft. Collins Horror Film Festival (CO)
Sunscreen Film Festival (FL)
Hibulb Cultural Center Film Festival (WA)
Staffordshire Film Festival (UK)
UVU Film Festival (UT)
Mascara & Popcorn Film Festival (CA)
No/Gloss Film Festival (UK)
Full Moon Fantasy & Horror Film Festival (RO)
HorrorQuest Film Festival (GA)
Fear Fete Film Festival (MS)
Hot Springs Int. Horror Film Festival (AR)
Zinema Zombie Fest (Columbia)
Sacramento Horror Film Festival (CA)
Jaxon Film Festival (MI)
Housecore Horror Film Festival (TX)

We have formed a new horror film production company called Witching Season Films, where we are releasing lots of new horror content! We are creating a number of different horror projects including a horror web anthology called The Witching Season. Find us at the links below!

▶ Main Website: http://witchingseasonfilms.com
▶ Facebook: http://facebook.com/witchingseasonfilms
▶ Youtube: http://youtube.com/witchingseasonfilms

Decarboxylation: What It Is, & Why You Should Decarb Your Weed

Decarboxylation: What It Is, & Why You Should Decarb Your Weed

decarbing

Have you ever wondered why you need to heat cannabis to feel the psychoactive effects? In order to get high from cannabis, you need to decarboxylate it first. But, what is decarboxylation and why should you decarb your weed? We’ll walk you through everything you need to know about getting the most out of your herb. 

What is decarboxylation?

Decarboxylation-Why-You-Should-1

Did you know that raw cannabis is non-psychoactive? The herb only becomes psychoactive when two things happen. First, when the bud dries and ages. Second, when the cannabis is heated. More psychoactive compounds are created by heating the plant than via ageing. In order to release the full potential of marijuana’s psychoactive effects, you must first go through a process called decarboxylation.

 

“Decarboxylation” is a long word for a simple process. To decarboxylate your herb, you just need to heat it. Applying a little heat to dried bud inspires some fascinating chemical reactions in the plant. Namely, you transform compounds called cannabinoid acids into a form that is readily usable by the body.

Cannabinoids are chemicals found in the cannabis plant that bind to cells in the body to produce effects. Sometimes decarboxylation is called “activating” or “decarbing”.

You probably have already heard that the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis is delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is what gets you high when you smoke a little flower or eat an edible. But, you won’t find much THC on a live, growing marijuana plant, if any at all. What you find instead is another compound called THCA, which is short for tetrahydrocannabinolic acid.

THCA is not psychoactive. That’s right, this acid compound won’t get you high. In order to feel the mind-altering effects of cannabis, you need to transform THCA into psychoactive THC. So, you apply a little heat.

Each time you take a lighter to a joint or place your cannabis in the oven, you are acting the part of an amateur chemist. You are converting one compound into another. You’re turning an otherwise non-psychoactive plant into a psychoactive one. To get specific, you are removing a “carboxyl group” from the acid form of THC. Hence the term “De-carboxylation“. Without that carboxyl group, THC is able to freely bind to cell receptors in your brain and body.

Are there benefits to raw cannabis?

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If you want a high, you need to decarb first. However, there are some benefits to leaving your cannabis raw. Keep in mind that “raw” does not mean dried and cured. When you dry and cure your cannabis, a little decarboxylation happens as the herb ages.

Raw, uncured cannabis has a variety of health benefits. Cannabinoid acids are potent anti-inflammatories. The herb is also packed full of vitamins and nutrients found in other healthy greens.

To use the herb raw, you’ll need to use freshly picked buds or fan leaves. You can also store raw cannabis in the refrigerator for a day or two like you would any other leafy green herb. Though, be mindful of mould and wilting. Densely packed cannabis flowers can become mouldy quite quickly when they’re exposed to moisture. You really want to use them as quickly as possible. They also begin to lose potency and denature the longer they sit.

Many medical cannabis patients have success by simply drinking raw cannabis juices or smoothies. You can find more information on raw, dietary cannabis here.

If you’re hoping for some psychoactive edibles, however, it’s best to decarboxylate your cannabis before you begin the cooking process.

Why do I decarb before cooking?

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If you’re cooking with cannabis, it is highly recommended you decarboxylate before you begin making your edible. If you ingest cannabis and want the full psychoactive effect, you need to first decarboxylate before cooking with the herb. Activating your cannabis prior to cooking ensures that THC’s psychoactive potential is not wasted.

If you don’t decarb before cooking, you risk losing potency and are not making the most out of your cannabis.

Do I need to decarb CBD strains?

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The short answer? Yes. CBD is short for cannabidiol, another common cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant. Unlike THC, CBD is non-psychoactive. Just like THC, CBD is found in its acid form in raw cannabis. This raw form (CBDA) has health-promoting properties on its own. But, activating CBD makes it more readily available for the body to use.

To use the proper term, activated CBD is more bioavailable. This means that the compound can be put to use by your body right away. When left in its raw form, your body has to do some extra work to break down the molecule and it may use the acid form in a slightly different way.

The same goes for other cannabinoids as well. Their raw form is the acid from. To make them more bioavailable, you need to decarboxylate. Bioavailability is why you need to decarb your weed.

Temperature and terpenes

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When it comes to decarboxylating, the lower the temperature you use, the longer the decarboxylation process is it’s going to take. However, this is not a bad thing! When using a lower temperature, you to lose fewer terpenes throughout the decarboxylation process.

Have you ever wondered why buds of even the same strain can have different tastes and smells? The answer is hidden in terpenes. Simply put, terpenes are the oils that give cannabis plants and flowers their unique smell such as berry, mint, citrus, and pine. There are many medicinal benefits to terpenes; some will successfully relieve your stress while others will promote focus and awareness.

Terpenes also work in tandem with THC and other cannabinoids to amplify the medical benefits of certain strains. For example, one common terpene is linalool. Linalool is the compound that gives lavender its unique scent. Strains like L.A. Confidential and Lavender tend to have high levels of linalool. Research suggests that this may amplify the sedative effects of THC.

The max temperature for terpene expression is 310 to 400°F (154 – 204.4°C). Anything above that will burn off the terpenes, altering flavor and lessening medical effects.

How to decarb before cooking

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Decarboxylation is a super simple process. Before you throw some cannabis into your pasta sauce or some “herbal seasoning” to your next pizza, make sure you follow these easy steps:

  1. Preheat the oven to 240° F. / 115° C.
  2. Break up cannabis flowers and buds into smaller pieces with your hands. We use one ounce, but you can elect to do more or less.
  3. Put the pieces in one layer on a rimmed baking sheet. Make sure the pan is the correct size so there is not empty space on the pan.
  4. Bake the cannabis for 30 to 40 minutes, stirring every 10 minutes so that it toasts evenly.
  5. When the cannabis is darker in color, a light to medium brown, and has dried out, remove the baking sheet and allow the cannabis to cool. It should be quite crumbly when handled.
  6. In a food processor, pulse the cannabis until it is coarsely ground (you don’t want a superfine powder). Store it in an airtight container and use as needed to make extractions

Watch the video

Fortunately, we’ve created this easy step-by-step video to walk you through the decarboxylation process. It really is not complicated, and taking a little time to properly activate your herb will produce amazing results. Watch the video below to see how it’s done:

 

 

This image of Putin is illegal in Russia, so don’t distribute it. FUCK #PUTIN, and #RUSSIA

Since 2013, Russia has enforced “internet extremism” laws that forbid the dissemination of online content that the government finds offensive. Newly added to that list is an image that depicts Vladimir Putin as, in the words of the Washington Post, “a potentially gay clown.” As such, the above image is now illegal in Russia to share the above photo. It’s not illegal here, though.

This registry of “extremist materials” features the photo at number 4071, and the Post describes it thusly: “a picture of a Putin-like person ’with eyes and lips made up,’ captioned with an implicit anti-gay slur, implying ’the supposed nonstandard sexual orientation of the president of the Russian Federation.’”

Here it is again, should you need a reminder:

Do not distribute it in Russia.

CNN reports that Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said of the photo: “You know how such things might hurt somebody’s feelings, but the President is quite resistant to such obscenity and learned how to not pay attention.”

That much is obvious, what with the 15-day prison sentence and fine of 3,000 rubles that hits anyone in Russia who would venture to go so far as to even retweet the image.

The image’s origins date back to as early as 2011, though it became common among those who would protest Putin’s 2013 “gay propaganda” law, which aims to protect children from the views of those with “nontraditional sexual relations.” Protests often found those arguing in favor of gay rights to be beaten or arrested.

Of course, there are plenty of other memes out there that might offend people who can’t bear the thought of Putin being associated with “nontraditional sexual relations.” Here’s a few below:

В РФ признали экстремистским плакат с накрашенными Путиным и Медведевым http://gordonua.com/news/worldnews/v-rf-priznali-ekstremistskim-plakat-s-nakrashennymi-putinym-i-medvedevym-181824.html 

Photo published for В РФ признали экстремистским плакат с накрашенными Путиным и Медведевым

В РФ признали экстремистским плакат с накрашенными Путиным и Медведевым

Картинка, на которой были изображены люди, похожие на президента РФ Владимира Путина и премьер-министра Дмитрия…

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11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can’t Explain

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

Science is amazing, is it not? It can tell us the size of planets light years away. It can explain the eating habits of giant dinosaurs that have been extinct for millions of years. Science can even tell us all about particles that are far too small to see with the human eye.

But there are a lot of things — many every day things, in fact — that science cannot explain.

How do magnets work? Why does watching someone yawn make you have to yawn? Why do dogs poop the way they do? These are the questions that scientists can’t quite answer…yet.

UP FIRST: Why does lightning happen?

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

Why Does Lightning Happen?

Some 44,000 thunderstorms rage worldwide each day, delivering as many as 100 lightning bolts to the ground every second. That’s a lot of lightning. So much, in fact, that one would be forgiven for assuming that scientists understand why lightning happens — but they don’t.

For all we know, lightning might as well come from Zeus. Counting Ben Franklin’s kite-and-key experiment as the starting point, 250 years of scientific investigation have yet to get to grips with how lightning works.

Atmospheric scientists have a basic sketch of the process. Positive electric charges build up at the tops of thunderclouds and negative charges build up at the bottoms (except for perplexing patches of positive charges often detected in the center-bottom). Electrical attraction between these opposite charges, and between the negative charges at the bottom of the cloud and positive charges that accumulate on the ground below, eventually grow strong enough to overcome the air’s resistance to electrical flow.

Like a herd of elephants wading across a river, negative charges venture down from the bottom of the cloud into the sky below and move haltingly toward the ground, forming an invisible, conductive path called a “step leader.” The charges’ path eventually connects to similar “streamers” of positive charges surging up from the ground, completing an electrical circuit and enabling negative charges to pour from the cloud to the ground along the circuit they have formed. This sudden, enormous electric discharge is the flash of lightning.

But as for how all that happens — well, it just doesn’t make much physical sense. There are three big questions needing answers, said Joe Dwyer, a leading lightning physicist based at the Florida Institute of Technology. “First, how do you actually charge up a thundercloud?” Dwyer said. A mix of water and ice is needed to provide atoms that can acquire charge, and updrafts are required to move the charged particles around. The rest of the details are hazy.

The second point of confusion is called the “lightning initiation problem.” So the question is, “How do you get a spark going inside a thunderstorm? The electric fields never seem to be big enough inside the storm to generate a spark. So how does that spark get going? This is a very active area of research,” Dwyer said.

And once the spark gets going, the final question is how it keeps going. “After you get it started, how does lightning propagate for tens of miles through clouds?” Dwyer said. “That’s an amazing thing — how do you turn air from being an insulator into a conductor?”

UP NEXT: How do magnets work?

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

How Do Magnets Work?

Sure, they’re run-of-the-mill household items, but that doesn’t mean magnets are easy to understand. While physicists have some understanding of how magnets function, the phenomena that underlie magnetism continue to elude scientific explanation.

Large-scale magnetism, like the kind observed in bar magnets, results from magnetic fields that naturally radiate from the electrically charged particles that make up atoms, said Jearl Walker, a physics professor at Cleveland State University and coauthor of “Fundamentals of Physics” (Wiley, 2007).The most common magnetic fields come from negatively charged particles called electrons.

Normally, in any sample of matter, the magnetic fields of electrons point in different directions, canceling each other out. But when the fields all align in the same direction, like in magnetic metals, an object generates a net magnetic field, Walker told Live Science in 2010.

Every electron generates a magnetic field, but they only generate a net magnetic field when they all line up. Otherwise, the electrons in the human body would cause everyone to stick to the refrigerator whenever they walked by, Walker said.

Currently, physics has two explanations for why magnetic fields align in the same direction: a large-scale theory from classical physics, and a small-scale theory called quantum mechanics.

According to the classical theory, magnetic fields are clouds of energy around magnetic particles that pull in or push away other magnetic objects. But in the quantum mechanics view, electrons emit undetectable, virtual particles that tell other objects to move away or come closer, Walker said.

Although these two theories help scientists understand how magnets behave in almost every circumstance, two important aspects of magnetism remain unexplained: why magnets always have a north and south pole, and why particles emit magnetic fields in the first place.

“We just observe that when you make a charged particle move, it creates a magnetic field and two poles. We don’t really know why. It’s just a feature of the universe, and the mathematical explanations are just attempts of getting through the ‘homework assignment’ of nature and getting the answers,” Walker said.

UP NEXT: Why do dogs face north or south to poop?

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

Why Do Dogs Face North or South to Poop?

Did you know that dogs prefer to poop while aligned with the north-south axis of the Earth’s magnetic field? Because they totally do, but scientists can’t really explain why.

Research conducted in 2014 found that dogs preferred to poop when their bodies were aligned in a north-south direction, as determined by the geomagnetic field. (True north, which is determined by the position of the poles, is slightly different from magnetic north.)

And while dogs of both sexes faced north or south while defecating, only females preferred to urinate in a north or south direction — males didn’t show much preference while urinating.

This odd finding joins a long and growing list of research showing that animals — both wild and domesticated — can sense the Earth’s geomagnetic field and coordinate their behavior with it.

A 2008 analysis of Google Earth satellite images revealed that herds of cattle worldwide tend to stand in the north-south direction of Earth’s magnetic lines when grazing, regardless of wind direction or time of day. The same behavior was seen in two different species of deer.

Birds also use magnetic fields to migrate thousands of miles, some research suggests. A 2013 report found that pigeons are equipped with microscopic balls of iron in their inner ears, which may account for the animals’ sensitivity to the geomagnetic field.

Humans, too, might possess a similar ability — a protein in the human retina may help people sense magnetic fields, though the research into this and many other related geomagnetic phenomena is preliminary and therefore remains inconclusive.

But why do animals of all shapes and sizes seem to be ruled by Earth’s geomagnetic field? The answer remains elusive, the scientists admitted.

“It is still enigmatic why the dogs do align at all, whether they do it ‘consciously’ (i.e., whether the magnetic field is sensorial[ly] perceived) … or whether its reception is controlled on the vegetative level (they ‘feel better/more comfortable or worse/less comfortable’ in a certain direction),” the study authors wrote.

The researchers also found that when the Earth’s magnetic field was in a state of flux — it changes during solar flares, geomagnetic storms and other events — the dogs’ north-south orientation was less predictable. Only when the magnetic field was calm did researchers reliably observe the north-south orientation.

Further research is needed to determine how and why dogs and other animals sense and use the planet’s magnetic field every single day.

UP NEXT

: What causes gravity?

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

What Causes Gravity? 

You know gravity? That invisible force holding you (and every person and object around you) to the Earth? Well, you might learn all about gravity in a science classroom, but scientists still aren’t sure what causes it.

In the deepest depths of space, gravity tugs on matter to form galaxies, stars, black holes and the like. In spite of its infinite reach, however, gravity is the wimpiest of all forces in the universe.

This weakness also makes it the most mysterious, as scientists can’t measure it in the laboratory as easily as they can detect its effects on planets and stars. The repulsion between two positively charged protons, for example, is 10^36 times stronger than gravity’s pull between them—that’s 1 followed by 36 zeros less macho.

Physicists want to squeeze little old gravity into the standard model—the crown-jewel theory of modern physics that explains three other fundamental forces in physics—but none has succeeded. Like a runt at a pool party, gravity just doesn’t fit in when using Einstein’s theory of relativity, which explains gravity only on large scales

“Gravity is completely different from the other forces described by the standard model,” said Mark Jackson, a theoretical physicist at Fermilab in Illinois. “When you do some calculations about small gravitational interactions, you get stupid answers. The math simply doesn’t work.”

The numbers may not jibe, but physicists have a hunch about gravity’s unseen gremlins: Tiny, massless particles called gravitons that emanate gravitational fields.

Each hypothetical bit tugs on every piece of matter in the universe, as fast as the speed of light permits. Yet if they are so common in the universe, why haven’t physicists found them?

“We can detect massless particles such as photons just fine, but gravitons elude us because they interact so weakly with matter,” said Michael Turner, a cosmologist at the University of Chicago. “We simply don’t know how to detect one.”

Turner, however, isn’t despondent about humanity’s quest for gravitons. He thinks we’ll eventually ensnare a few of the pesky particles hiding in the shadows of more easily detected particles.

“What it really comes down to is technology,” Turner said.

UP NEXT: Why do cats purr?

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

Why Do Cats Purr?

From house cats to cheetahs, most felid species produce a “purr-like” vocalization, according to University of California, Davis, veterinary professor Leslie Lyons. Domestic cats purr in a range of situations — while they nurse their kittens, when they are pet by humans, and even when they’re stressed out. Yes, you read right: Cats purr both when they’re happy and when they’re miserable. That has made figuring out the function of purring an uphill struggle for scientists.

One possibility is that it promotes bone growth, Lyons explained in Scientific American. Purring contains sound frequencies within the 25- to 150-Hertz range, and sounds in this range have been shown to improve bone density and promote healing. Because cats conserve energy by sleeping for long periods of time, purring may be a low-energy mechanism to keep muscles and bones healthy without actually using them.

Of course, cats purr even when they aren’t injured. Many domestic cats purr to indicate hunger, for example. A recent study out of the U.K. shows that some cats have even developed a special purr to ask their owners for food. This “solicitous purr” incorporates cries with similar frequencies as those of human babies. These conniving kitties have tapped into their owners’ psyches — all for more kibble.

However, this study doesn’t explain why cats purr in all of the situations they do. And scientists aren’t likely to find out more answers until cats learn to speak human…

UP NEXT: How does the brain work?

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

How Does the Brain Work?

With billions of neurons, each with thousands of connections, the human brain is a complex, and yes congested, mental freeway. Neurologists and cognitive scientists nowadays are probing how the mind gives rise to thoughts, actions, emotions and ultimately consciousness, but they still don’t have all the answers.

The complex machine is difficult for even the brainiest of scientists to wrap their heads around. What makes the brain such a tough nut to crack?

According to Scott Huettel of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at Duke University, the standard answer to this question goes something like: “The human brain is the most complex object in the known universe … complexity makes simple models impractical and accurate models impossible to comprehend.”

While that stock answer is correct, Huettel said, it’s incomplete. The real snag in brain science is one of navel gazing. Huettel and other neuroscientists can’t step outside of their own brains (and experiences) when studying the brain itself.

“A more pernicious factor is that we all think we understand the brain—at least our own—through our experiences. But our own subjective experience is a very poor guide to how the brain works,” Huettel told Live Science in 2007.

Scientists have made some progress in taking an objective, direct “look” at the human brain.

In recent years, brain-imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have allowed scientists to observe the brain in action and determine how groups of neurons function.

They have pinpointed hubs in the brain that are responsible for certain tasks, such as fleeing a dangerous situation, processing visual information, making those sweet dreams and storing long-term memories. But understanding the mechanics of how neuronal networks collaborate to allow such tasks has remained more elusive.

The prized puzzle in brain research is arguably the idea of consciousness. When you look at a painting, for instance, you are aware of it and your mind processes its colors and shapes. At the same time, the visual impression could stir up emotions and thoughts. This subjective awareness and perception is consciousness.

Many scientists consider consciousness the delineation between humans and other animals.

So rather than cognitive processes directly leading to behaviors (unbeknownst to us), we are aware of the thinking. We even know that we know!

If this mind bender is ever solved, an equally perplexing question would arise, according to neuroscientists: Why? Why does awareness exist at all?

UP NEXT: How do bicycles work?

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

How Do Bicycles Work?

The brain is a super complicated organ, so it kind of makes sense that scientists haven’t yet learned all its secrets. But surely those same scientists have figured out something as simple as a bicycle, right? Wrong: The brainiacs of the world still aren’t sure how bicycles work.

Bikes can stay upright all by themselves, as long as they’re moving forward; it’s because any time a moving bike starts to lean, its steering axis (the pole attached to the handlebars) turns the other way, tilting the bike upright again. This restorative effect was long believed to result from a law of physics called the conservation of angular momentum: When the bike wobbles, the axis perpendicular to its wheels’ spinning direction threatens to change, and the bike self-corrects in order to “conserve” the direction of that axis. In other words, the bike is a gyroscope. Additionally, the “trail effect” was thought to help keep bikes stable: Because the steering axis hits the ground slightly in front of the ground contact point of the front wheel, the wheel is forced to trail the steering of the handlebars.

But recently, a group of engineers led by Andy Ruina of Cornell University upturned this theory of bicycle locomotion. Their investigation, detailed in a 2011 article in the journal Science, showed that neither gyroscopic nor trail effects were necessary for a bike to work. To prove it, the engineers built a custom bicycle, which could take advantage of neither effect. The bike was designed so that each of its wheels rotated a second wheel above it in the opposite direction. That way, the spinning of the wheels canceled out and the bike’s total angular momentum was zero, erasing the influence of gyroscopic effects on the bike’s stability. The custom bike’s ground contact point was also positioned in front of its steering axis, destroying the trail effect. And yet, the bike worked.

The engineers know why: they added masses to the bike in choice places to enable gravity to cause the bike to self-steer. But the work showed there are many effects that go into the stability of bicycles — including gyroscopic and trail effects in the case of bikes that have them — that interact in extremely complex ways.

“The complex interactions have not been worked out. My suspicion is that we will never come to grips with them, but I don’t know that for sure,” Ruina told Live Science.

UP NEXT: Why are moths drawn to light?

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

Why Are Moths Drawn to Light?

“Look! That moth just flew straight into that light bulb and died!” said no one ever. We see it happen so often that it’s more likely to invoke yawns than discussion. But, surprisingly, the reason for these insects’ suicidal nosedives remains a total mystery. Science’s best guesses about why they do it aren’t even very good.

Some entomologists believe moths zoom toward artificial light sources because the lights throw off their internal navigation systems. In a behavior called transverse orientation, some insects navigate by flying at a constant angle relative to a distant light source, such as the moon. But around man-made lights, such as a campfire or your porch light, the angle to the light source changes as a moth flies by. Jerry Powell, an entomologist at the University of California, Berkeley said the thinking is that moths “become dazzled by the light and are somehow attracted.”

But this theory runs into two major stumbling blocks, Powell explained: First, campfires have been around for about 400,000 years. Wouldn’t natural selection have killed off moths whose instinct tells them to go kamikaze every time they feel blinded by the light? Secondly, moths may not even use transverse navigation; more than half of the species don’t even migrate.

Alternate theories are riddled with holes, too. For example, one holds that male moths are attracted to infrared light because it contains a few of the same light frequencies given off by female moths’ pheromones, or sex hormones, which glow very faintly. In short, male moths could be drawn to candles under the false belief that the lights are females sending out sex signals.  However, Powell points out that moths are more attracted to ultraviolet light than infrared light, and UV doesn’t look a bit like glowing pheromones.

Moth deaths: not as yawn-inducing as you might think.

UP NEXT: Why are there lefties (and righties)?

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

Why Are There Lefties (& Righties)?

One-tenth of people have better motor dexterity using their left limbs than their right. No one knows why these lefties exist. And no one knows why righties exist either, for that matter. Why do people have just one hand with top-notch motor skills, instead of a double dose of dexterity?

One theory holds that handedness results from having more intricate wiring on the side of the brain involved in speech (which also requires fine motor skills). Because the speech center usually sits in the brain’s left hemisphere — the side wired to the right side of the body — the right hand ends up dominant in most people. As for why the speech center usually (but not always) ends up in the left side of the brain, that’s still an open question.

The theory about the speech center controlling handedness gets a big blow from the fact that not all right-handed people control speech in the left hemisphere, while only half of lefties do. So, what explains those lefties whose speech centers reside in the left sides of their brains? It’s all very perplexing.

Research published in 2013 suggests that genes that play a role in the orientation of internal organs may also affect whether someone is right- or left-handed.

The study, published today (Sept. 12) in the journal PLOS Genetics, suggest those genes may also play a role in the brain, thereby affecting people’s handedness.

Still, the findings can’t yet explain the mystery of why a minority of people are left-handed because each gene only plays a tiny role in people’s handedness.

UP NEXT: Is yawning contagious?

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

Are Yawns Contagious?

In 2012, Austrian researchers won an Ig Nobel Prize for their discovery that yawns are not contagious among red-footed tortoises.

We know so much about tortoises, but human yawning? Still an enigma. The sight of a person’s gaping jaws, squinting eyes and deep inhalation “hijacks your body and induces you to replicate the observed behavior,” writes the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, psychologist Robert Provine in his new book, “Curious Behavior” (Belknap Press, 2012). But why?

Preliminary brain-scan data indicate that regions of the brain associated with theory of mind (the ability to attribute mental states and feelings to oneself and others) and self-processing become active when people observe other people yawning. Many autistic and schizophrenic people do not exhibit this brain activity, and they do not “catch” yawns. These clues suggest contagious yawning reflects an ability to empathize and form normal emotional ties with others, Provine explained.

But why should our social connections with one another circulate through yawning, as opposed to hiccupping or passing gas? No one knows for sure, and that’s because no one knows quite why we yawn. Embryos do it to sculpt the hinge of their jaws. Fully formed people do it when we’re sleepy and bored. But how does yawning ameliorate these complaints?

UP NEXT: What causes static electricity?

11 Totally Normal Things That Science Can't Explain

What Causes Static Electricity?

Static shocks are as mysterious as they are unpleasant. What we know is this: They occur when an excess of either positive or negative charge builds up on the surface of your body, discharging when you touch something and leaving you neutralized. Alternatively, they can occur when static electricity builds up on something else — a doorknob, say — which you then touch. In that case, you are the excess charge’s exit route.

But why all the buildup? It’s unclear. The traditional explanation says that when two objects rub together, friction knocks the electrons off the atoms in one of the objects, and these then move onto the second, leaving the first object with an excess of positively charged atoms and giving the second an excess of negative electrons. Both objects (your hair and a wool hat, say) will then be statically charged. But why do electrons flow from one object to the other, instead of moving in both directions?

This has never been satisfactorily explained, and a study by Northwestern University researcher Bartosz Grzybowski found reason to doubt the whole story. As detailed last year in the journal Science, Grzybowski found that patches of both excess positive and excess negative charge exist on statically charged objects. He also found that entire molecules seemed to migrate between objects as they are rubbed together, not just electrons. What generates this mosaic of charges and migration of material has yet to be determined, but clearly, the explanation of static is changing.

Has the EU Just Outlawed ‘Fully-Loaded’ Kodi Boxes?

Image result for raspberry pi

Android devices with modified Kodi software installed continue to prove popular among the pirating masses. However, a ruling from the EU Court this week will make life more difficult for suppliers. That’s the opinion of Dutch anti-piracy outfit BREIN, who say that sellers will now have to verify if the links contained in such devices are infringing.

kodiWhile millions of people around the globe share files using BitTorrent every day, there are some who prefer to stream their content instead.

These users can easily visit any one of thousands of streaming portals via a desktop web browser but for those looking for complete convenience, set-top boxes offer a perfect solution.

These devices, often Android-based, regularly come with the Kodi media center already installed. However, Kodi provides no illegal content – custom addons do – and it’s their inclusion in the package that provides users with what they want – free (or cost reduced) movies, TV, and sports.

One of the groups trying to crack down on so-called “fully loaded” boxes is Dutch anti-piracy group BREIN. The organization has threatened legal action against several local suppliers and has had one case referred to the European Court. However, a decision in a separate case last week could have big implications for “fully loaded” box supply across Europe, BREIN says.

The case, which involved Dutch blog GeenStijl.nl and Playboy, resulted in an important ruling from the European Court of Justice.

The Court found that when “hyperlinks are posted for profit, it may be expected that the person who posted such a link should carry out the checks necessary to ensure that the work concerned is not illegally published.” In other words, posting links to infringing content in a commercial environment amounts to a communication to the public, and is therefore illegal.

For groups like BREIN, the ruling opens up new avenues for anti-piracy action. For sellers of piracy-capable boxes and related IPTV subscriptions across the EU, trouble could lie in wait.

“Copyright protection organization BREIN holds suppliers of IPTV devices responsible for verifying whether their sources for internet TV channels are legal or not. In general, this is not the case,” BREIN said in a statement this week.

“Suppliers advertise that when buying their service you do not have to pay separately for pay-channels for films, TV shows, and sports. Such a compilation costs a fraction of the total sum of subscriptions to the individual channels.”

BREIN says that following the decision of the European Court of Justice last week, commercial suppliers of IPTV boxes are now obliged to verify whether the sources being linked in their devices are authorized by the content providers. If they are not, the seller could be held liable for infringement.

If BREIN’s interpretation of the decision proves correct, sellers of “fully-loaded” Kodi and other IPTV boxes face a minefield of uncertainty.

There is absolutely no way vendors can check every single link contained in the software present in the boxes they sell. Furthermore, those links are often updated automatically, meaning that what is legal on the day they are sold might not be legal when the software updates tomorrow.

But while it’s certainly possible that BREIN’s take on the decision will prove to be correct, actually enforcing the law against hundreds or even thousands of suppliers is likely to prove impossible. Big suppliers are easily targeted though, which may send out a warning.

“BREIN has written letters to suppliers of IPTV subscriptions to warn them that they are required to verify beforehand whether the sources for the IPTV channels they use are legal. If the suppliers are not willing to do so, then BREIN will institute court proceedings,” BREIN says.

However, more often that not “fully loaded” boxes are offered for sale on eBay and Amazon by regular people out to make a few bucks. Taking action against every single one is not realistic.

But even if all infringing boxes were wiped from sale, that wouldn’t stop people selling blank devices. These can be easily setup by the user to stream all of the latest movies, sports and TV shows with a few clicks, rendering a smart supplier immune from liability.

And of course, anyone with VLC Media Player and the ability to Google can find plenty of dedicated IPTV streams available online, without paying anyone a penny.

Italian police cook pasta for lonely couple after neighbours heard them crying

Officers cooked the meal for Jole, 84 and her husband Michele, 94, after responding to reports from neighbours who heard crying coming from the couple’s flat in Rome.

  • Rome police cook dinner for the couple at their home
    Emma Sword

    Last updated: 08 August 2016, 15:57 BST

    Police officers in Italy cooked dinner for a lonely elderly couple after they received reports of crying coming from their apartment in Rome.

    Officers went to the home of Jole, 84, and her 94-year-old husband Michele after receiving reports of hearing shouting and crying coming from inside their flat in the Appio area of the city.

    The officers found a couple who had not been victims of crime but who were simply lonely, the force wrote on their official Facebook page.

    Posting pictures of the couple on their official Facebook page, police in Rome said the pair, who have been married for 70 years, told officers they had not had any visitors for a long time and were simply lonely.

    Writing about the incident, police said on Facebook: “Jole and Michele they love each other. But when the loneliness is a burden on the heart, it may happen that they lose hope.

    “Can happen like this time that scream so loud in their despair that, in the end, somebody call the state police. There isn’t a crime. Jole and Michele are not victims of scams as often happens to the elderly and no burglar came in the house. There’s no one to save.

    “This time, for the boys there is a more difficult task to perform. There are two lonely souls to reassure.”

    While waiting for an ambulance to arrive to check the couple over, the officers prepared a hot meal using ingredients they found in the pantry.

    “While waiting for the ambulance to verify that the spouses are okay, they understand that just a little bit of warmth will bring peace to Jole and Michele. Ask for permission to access the pantry. Improvise a little dinner.

    “A bowl of pasta with butter and cheese. Nothing special. But with a precious ingredient: is there, inside, all their humanity.”

    People praised the actions of the police, while the post of the couple enjoying their pasta with the officers has been shared more than 20,000 times.

    Picture credit: Rome Police/Facebook

 

This Irishman Saved 2 Foxes And Now They Won’t Leave His Side

Meet Patsy Gibbons, an Irishman from County Kilkenny, Ireland. He’s dad to Grainne and Minnie.

foxy family

Gibbons found the foxes abandoned as pups and, worried for their survival, nursed them back to health.

foxy family

Thankfully, the adorable foxes made a full recovery. But instead of returning to the wild, they decided to adopt Patsy as their dad.

foxy family

Unsurprisingly, the trio receive a lot of attention from local children, so much so that schools in the area invite the unusual threesome to meet the kids.

foxy family

“I now have people from all over the country and indeed the UK asking me for advice on looking after foxes,” Gibbons told The Irish Examiner.

foxy family

“I’m no expert and I’m still learning from them day-by-day (but) I’m happy to advise as a lay person.”

foxy family

As a keen animal lover, Patsy has 28 hens, 12 ducks, two dogs and two cats, as well as his three foxes. And apparently, they all get along very well.

foxy family

foxy family

foxy family

(Source)

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This School Cafeteria In Japan is Growing Young Minds and Vegetables

Many cultures in various countries have parents that are focused on the quality of the food and drinks that their kids eat at home, however some don’t pay enough attention to the dietary habits being established at school. Check out this elementary school in Saitima, Japan where meal time is a 45-minute period where kids are learning some of the most important lessons of the day.

Don’t miss this footage below, and remember to share with friends and family!

These kids are actually growing and peeling their own produce on their school’s very own farm. They then serve meals to their classmates and even clean everything up after lunch. There’s a well-formulated plan that guides the educational portion of their learning process which maintains direction and focus while still giving them a chance to have fun and develop some valuable skills.

What do you think? Sound off in the comments.

 

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