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Decarboxylation: What It Is, & Why You Should Decarb Your Weed

Decarboxylation: What It Is, & Why You Should Decarb Your Weed

decarbing

Have you ever wondered why you need to heat cannabis to feel the psychoactive effects? In order to get high from cannabis, you need to decarboxylate it first. But, what is decarboxylation and why should you decarb your weed? We’ll walk you through everything you need to know about getting the most out of your herb. 

What is decarboxylation?

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Did you know that raw cannabis is non-psychoactive? The herb only becomes psychoactive when two things happen. First, when the bud dries and ages. Second, when the cannabis is heated. More psychoactive compounds are created by heating the plant than via ageing. In order to release the full potential of marijuana’s psychoactive effects, you must first go through a process called decarboxylation.

 

“Decarboxylation” is a long word for a simple process. To decarboxylate your herb, you just need to heat it. Applying a little heat to dried bud inspires some fascinating chemical reactions in the plant. Namely, you transform compounds called cannabinoid acids into a form that is readily usable by the body.

Cannabinoids are chemicals found in the cannabis plant that bind to cells in the body to produce effects. Sometimes decarboxylation is called “activating” or “decarbing”.

You probably have already heard that the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis is delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is what gets you high when you smoke a little flower or eat an edible. But, you won’t find much THC on a live, growing marijuana plant, if any at all. What you find instead is another compound called THCA, which is short for tetrahydrocannabinolic acid.

THCA is not psychoactive. That’s right, this acid compound won’t get you high. In order to feel the mind-altering effects of cannabis, you need to transform THCA into psychoactive THC. So, you apply a little heat.

Each time you take a lighter to a joint or place your cannabis in the oven, you are acting the part of an amateur chemist. You are converting one compound into another. You’re turning an otherwise non-psychoactive plant into a psychoactive one. To get specific, you are removing a “carboxyl group” from the acid form of THC. Hence the term “De-carboxylation“. Without that carboxyl group, THC is able to freely bind to cell receptors in your brain and body.

Are there benefits to raw cannabis?

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If you want a high, you need to decarb first. However, there are some benefits to leaving your cannabis raw. Keep in mind that “raw” does not mean dried and cured. When you dry and cure your cannabis, a little decarboxylation happens as the herb ages.

Raw, uncured cannabis has a variety of health benefits. Cannabinoid acids are potent anti-inflammatories. The herb is also packed full of vitamins and nutrients found in other healthy greens.

To use the herb raw, you’ll need to use freshly picked buds or fan leaves. You can also store raw cannabis in the refrigerator for a day or two like you would any other leafy green herb. Though, be mindful of mould and wilting. Densely packed cannabis flowers can become mouldy quite quickly when they’re exposed to moisture. You really want to use them as quickly as possible. They also begin to lose potency and denature the longer they sit.

Many medical cannabis patients have success by simply drinking raw cannabis juices or smoothies. You can find more information on raw, dietary cannabis here.

If you’re hoping for some psychoactive edibles, however, it’s best to decarboxylate your cannabis before you begin the cooking process.

Why do I decarb before cooking?

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If you’re cooking with cannabis, it is highly recommended you decarboxylate before you begin making your edible. If you ingest cannabis and want the full psychoactive effect, you need to first decarboxylate before cooking with the herb. Activating your cannabis prior to cooking ensures that THC’s psychoactive potential is not wasted.

If you don’t decarb before cooking, you risk losing potency and are not making the most out of your cannabis.

Do I need to decarb CBD strains?

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The short answer? Yes. CBD is short for cannabidiol, another common cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant. Unlike THC, CBD is non-psychoactive. Just like THC, CBD is found in its acid form in raw cannabis. This raw form (CBDA) has health-promoting properties on its own. But, activating CBD makes it more readily available for the body to use.

To use the proper term, activated CBD is more bioavailable. This means that the compound can be put to use by your body right away. When left in its raw form, your body has to do some extra work to break down the molecule and it may use the acid form in a slightly different way.

The same goes for other cannabinoids as well. Their raw form is the acid from. To make them more bioavailable, you need to decarboxylate. Bioavailability is why you need to decarb your weed.

Temperature and terpenes

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When it comes to decarboxylating, the lower the temperature you use, the longer the decarboxylation process is it’s going to take. However, this is not a bad thing! When using a lower temperature, you to lose fewer terpenes throughout the decarboxylation process.

Have you ever wondered why buds of even the same strain can have different tastes and smells? The answer is hidden in terpenes. Simply put, terpenes are the oils that give cannabis plants and flowers their unique smell such as berry, mint, citrus, and pine. There are many medicinal benefits to terpenes; some will successfully relieve your stress while others will promote focus and awareness.

Terpenes also work in tandem with THC and other cannabinoids to amplify the medical benefits of certain strains. For example, one common terpene is linalool. Linalool is the compound that gives lavender its unique scent. Strains like L.A. Confidential and Lavender tend to have high levels of linalool. Research suggests that this may amplify the sedative effects of THC.

The max temperature for terpene expression is 310 to 400°F (154 – 204.4°C). Anything above that will burn off the terpenes, altering flavor and lessening medical effects.

How to decarb before cooking

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Decarboxylation is a super simple process. Before you throw some cannabis into your pasta sauce or some “herbal seasoning” to your next pizza, make sure you follow these easy steps:

  1. Preheat the oven to 240° F. / 115° C.
  2. Break up cannabis flowers and buds into smaller pieces with your hands. We use one ounce, but you can elect to do more or less.
  3. Put the pieces in one layer on a rimmed baking sheet. Make sure the pan is the correct size so there is not empty space on the pan.
  4. Bake the cannabis for 30 to 40 minutes, stirring every 10 minutes so that it toasts evenly.
  5. When the cannabis is darker in color, a light to medium brown, and has dried out, remove the baking sheet and allow the cannabis to cool. It should be quite crumbly when handled.
  6. In a food processor, pulse the cannabis until it is coarsely ground (you don’t want a superfine powder). Store it in an airtight container and use as needed to make extractions

Watch the video

Fortunately, we’ve created this easy step-by-step video to walk you through the decarboxylation process. It really is not complicated, and taking a little time to properly activate your herb will produce amazing results. Watch the video below to see how it’s done:

 

 

This image of Putin is illegal in Russia, so don’t distribute it. FUCK #PUTIN, and #RUSSIA

Since 2013, Russia has enforced “internet extremism” laws that forbid the dissemination of online content that the government finds offensive. Newly added to that list is an image that depicts Vladimir Putin as, in the words of the Washington Post, “a potentially gay clown.” As such, the above image is now illegal in Russia to share the above photo. It’s not illegal here, though.

This registry of “extremist materials” features the photo at number 4071, and the Post describes it thusly: “a picture of a Putin-like person ’with eyes and lips made up,’ captioned with an implicit anti-gay slur, implying ’the supposed nonstandard sexual orientation of the president of the Russian Federation.’”

Here it is again, should you need a reminder:

Do not distribute it in Russia.

CNN reports that Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said of the photo: “You know how such things might hurt somebody’s feelings, but the President is quite resistant to such obscenity and learned how to not pay attention.”

That much is obvious, what with the 15-day prison sentence and fine of 3,000 rubles that hits anyone in Russia who would venture to go so far as to even retweet the image.

The image’s origins date back to as early as 2011, though it became common among those who would protest Putin’s 2013 “gay propaganda” law, which aims to protect children from the views of those with “nontraditional sexual relations.” Protests often found those arguing in favor of gay rights to be beaten or arrested.

Of course, there are plenty of other memes out there that might offend people who can’t bear the thought of Putin being associated with “nontraditional sexual relations.” Here’s a few below:

В РФ признали экстремистским плакат с накрашенными Путиным и Медведевым http://gordonua.com/news/worldnews/v-rf-priznali-ekstremistskim-plakat-s-nakrashennymi-putinym-i-medvedevym-181824.html 

Photo published for В РФ признали экстремистским плакат с накрашенными Путиным и Медведевым

В РФ признали экстремистским плакат с накрашенными Путиным и Медведевым

Картинка, на которой были изображены люди, похожие на президента РФ Владимира Путина и премьер-министра Дмитрия…

gordonua.com

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MEDIA500-Year-Old Map Explodes ‘Earth-Shattering Reality’

World famous Ottoman cartographer Piri Reis’ 500-year-old map, apart from accurately exploring the northern coast of Antarctica, provides mind-boggling information about 2000 important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea, the western coasts of Europe and North Africa and the eastern coast of South America.

The Piri Reis map was compiled in 1513 and when it was discovered in 1929 it caused an international sensation as it was the only 16th-century map that showed South America in its proper longitudinal position in relation to Africa. The map shows the earth as seen from space, the sub-glacial topography of Greenland and Antarctica, and is aligned with the earth’s energy grid – enough hard-to-believe information to fascinate today’s world.

The astonishing details have puzzled the human minds and given rise to questions and controversies:

  • The map depicts Queen Maud Land, a 2.7 million-square-kilometer region of Antarctica, as ice-free millions of years ago. Geological evidence proves that this region could not have been ice-free until 4000 BC.
  • The true nature of Antarctica as a frigid region of ice and snow was convincingly proved for the first time by the second voyage of the English navigator Captain James Cook between 1772 and 1775.
  • The map depicts mountain ranges in the Antarctica. These were not discovered until 1952.
  • The geographical survey in Antarctica couldn’t have been made without an aerial technology. Such expertise did not exist million of years ago.

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The last period of ice-free condition in Antarctica ended about 6000 years ago. Now the puzzle is: Who mapped the Queen Maud Land of Antarctica 6000 years ago?

The Piri Reis map probably implies that, if not technology, perhaps there existed an extremely intelligent ancient advanced civilization with all the tools of modern day civilization. The first civilization developed around 3000 BC followed by the Indus valley and the Chinese civilizations. Now the second puzzle is: Who carried out such extensive research and surveys 4000 BC that are only possible in the modern era with the ultra-modern technology?

History Professor Charles Hapgood believes: “It appears that accurate information has been passed down from people to people. It appears that the charts must have originated with a people unknown and they were passed on, perhaps by the Minoans and the Phoenicians, who were, for a thousand years and more, the greatest sailors of the ancient world. We have evidence that they were collected and studied in the great library of Alexandria (Egypt) and that compilations of them were made by the geographers that worked there”.

The map neither came from any ancient civilization nor created by extraterrestrials; an astonishing piece of work, the Piri Reis map was indeed a first class piece of naval intelligence.

Has the EU Just Outlawed ‘Fully-Loaded’ Kodi Boxes?

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Android devices with modified Kodi software installed continue to prove popular among the pirating masses. However, a ruling from the EU Court this week will make life more difficult for suppliers. That’s the opinion of Dutch anti-piracy outfit BREIN, who say that sellers will now have to verify if the links contained in such devices are infringing.

kodiWhile millions of people around the globe share files using BitTorrent every day, there are some who prefer to stream their content instead.

These users can easily visit any one of thousands of streaming portals via a desktop web browser but for those looking for complete convenience, set-top boxes offer a perfect solution.

These devices, often Android-based, regularly come with the Kodi media center already installed. However, Kodi provides no illegal content – custom addons do – and it’s their inclusion in the package that provides users with what they want – free (or cost reduced) movies, TV, and sports.

One of the groups trying to crack down on so-called “fully loaded” boxes is Dutch anti-piracy group BREIN. The organization has threatened legal action against several local suppliers and has had one case referred to the European Court. However, a decision in a separate case last week could have big implications for “fully loaded” box supply across Europe, BREIN says.

The case, which involved Dutch blog GeenStijl.nl and Playboy, resulted in an important ruling from the European Court of Justice.

The Court found that when “hyperlinks are posted for profit, it may be expected that the person who posted such a link should carry out the checks necessary to ensure that the work concerned is not illegally published.” In other words, posting links to infringing content in a commercial environment amounts to a communication to the public, and is therefore illegal.

For groups like BREIN, the ruling opens up new avenues for anti-piracy action. For sellers of piracy-capable boxes and related IPTV subscriptions across the EU, trouble could lie in wait.

“Copyright protection organization BREIN holds suppliers of IPTV devices responsible for verifying whether their sources for internet TV channels are legal or not. In general, this is not the case,” BREIN said in a statement this week.

“Suppliers advertise that when buying their service you do not have to pay separately for pay-channels for films, TV shows, and sports. Such a compilation costs a fraction of the total sum of subscriptions to the individual channels.”

BREIN says that following the decision of the European Court of Justice last week, commercial suppliers of IPTV boxes are now obliged to verify whether the sources being linked in their devices are authorized by the content providers. If they are not, the seller could be held liable for infringement.

If BREIN’s interpretation of the decision proves correct, sellers of “fully-loaded” Kodi and other IPTV boxes face a minefield of uncertainty.

There is absolutely no way vendors can check every single link contained in the software present in the boxes they sell. Furthermore, those links are often updated automatically, meaning that what is legal on the day they are sold might not be legal when the software updates tomorrow.

But while it’s certainly possible that BREIN’s take on the decision will prove to be correct, actually enforcing the law against hundreds or even thousands of suppliers is likely to prove impossible. Big suppliers are easily targeted though, which may send out a warning.

“BREIN has written letters to suppliers of IPTV subscriptions to warn them that they are required to verify beforehand whether the sources for the IPTV channels they use are legal. If the suppliers are not willing to do so, then BREIN will institute court proceedings,” BREIN says.

However, more often that not “fully loaded” boxes are offered for sale on eBay and Amazon by regular people out to make a few bucks. Taking action against every single one is not realistic.

But even if all infringing boxes were wiped from sale, that wouldn’t stop people selling blank devices. These can be easily setup by the user to stream all of the latest movies, sports and TV shows with a few clicks, rendering a smart supplier immune from liability.

And of course, anyone with VLC Media Player and the ability to Google can find plenty of dedicated IPTV streams available online, without paying anyone a penny.

Exploiting the Tools from “Mr. Robot”

Exploiting the Tools from “Mr. Robot”

We have seen several times in the past, one of the most popular hacking utilities in movies is “NMap.” Often, movie producers will attempt to place a dose of reality-hacking into the respective computer(s) for specific hacking scenes, and more often than not, NMap will be the first to pop up. In fact, the first time this method was used was by the character Trinity in the hit movie The Matrix.  This same method had been used for several other movies, including Elysium, The Bourne Ultimatum, Die Hard 4 and Mr. Robot,  just to name a few.

Mr. Robot

With the debut seasons of Mr. Robot hitting our screens, the television show has received a nod from top security tweeters, for their attempts at trying to stay within (for the most part anyway), realistic boundaries. While watching this new show, hacktivist communications, which include using the IRC, can be viewed. Several Linux based machines are seen throughout the entire series. And of course, the main player also wears a black hoodie (kinda cool). While this is not always true within the hacktivist world, we do have to provide some slack for the producers, as they would have to provide a balance between story-mode and what we all know is technically possible to carry out in the real-world environment.

So, what are the more common tools used within this series? For one, the widely known hackers operating system, Kali Linux.

Kali Linux

Throughout the series, several references are hinted at the Kali Linux Operating System. This is a full O.S. with all the wonderful tools (let’s get real, here – toys) that any hacker would love to have!

Wget, Shellshock, and John the Ripper

The popular tool Wget is a handy little exploiting tool, which is a terminal based software with the ability to carry out HTTP requests. This widely used tool can download the source of a web page, or maybe grab a file from a web-based server from within a terminal.

Shellshock, on the other hand, is one of the better tools utilized to compromise a targeted system, using one of the most widely known and popular vulnerabilities from 2014, the Shellshock bug. In Figure 1.0, commands that have been sent in the user agent of the request, can be seen on the respective web-server. The command, in order to execute this vulnerability, is just a simple cat /etc/passwd.

Figure 1.0 also demonstrates how this success was also achieved by using the /etc/passwd file inside a company’s server. However, without utilizing the /etc/shadow file in which does contain the actual password hashes, we know that the next line – where John the Ripper takes place – would never carry out the rest of the exploit.

Mr. Robot

Canbus Hacking

With the automotive industry increasing its technology every day, car hacking is a rising cliché. Since the publication of a recent research paper by computer security researchers, where it was suggested a car could be remotely hacked into, and even taken over (in this case, a Jeep), while still in motion down a freeway, community interest has piqued. Canbus hacking has since been around for both car enthusiast and security researchers. In Figure 1.1, a screen shot from Mr. Robot shows how he uses candump on his terminal, in order to view the Canbus message.

USB in Park

In one Mr. Robot scene, we see a security guard pick up an unknown USB Thumbdrive. He proceeds to insert it into his Windows XP computer, thus resulting in infecting the machine with malware. (Silly him). Fortunately for the guard, his Avast Antivirus was able to detect and stop the malware from spreading. This technique is commonly used among server popular spots, to place code onto a server or targeted computer, where network access is limited or really secured.

BTScanner (Bluetooth Scanner)

This handy little tool is utilized for probing around and targeting phones possessing Bluetooth capabilities. This tool then proceeds to extract as much information from the targeted phone as it possibly can, without truly possessing a Bluetooth connection. This nifty little tool comes stocked with Kali Linux.

Bluesniff

In screen shot Figure 1.4, there is another handy tool for conducting attacks against Bluetooth enabled devices. In the Figure below, the attack was aimed in order to perform a “Man-in-the-Middle” attack – to take control over a Bluetooth keyboard. While having full control over the keyboard, the next move is to drop a simple Meterpreter shell directly into the script, thus, gaining access into the targeted network.

Metasploit Framework (Meterpreter)

Looking at Figure 1.5, we are able to see just a couple of lines of code. After looking in this code, we can clearly see that this line is from a Meterpreter shell framework. Any hacktivist that has used this tool previously, understands that just a tiny amount of code goes a very long way.

S.E.T. (Social Engineer Toolkit)

This software is a powerful framework that allows the setting up of social engineering attacks on an easier level. Such attacks consist of email-based spear phishing attacks, creating false websites in which replicates popular and well known websites, and even wireless access points, which can be launched through the main menu system. In Figure 1.6, the attacker is utilizing the SMS spoofing module.

Netscape Navigator

The Netscape Navigator is a preferred browser of choice for hackers. The Microsoft Operating System ‘Windows 95’ and ‘Netscape Navigator’ are mentioned everywhere throughout the T.V. show when the lead character, Elliot, reviews his early days as a hacktivist. In Figure 1.7, the source is viewed by the camera man. While humble in consideration towards new and updated browsers, Netscape Navigator prooves extremely useful when performing attacks for launching web applications, or just simply performing research on someone…or a company of interest.

While this T.V. show is based on how hackers operate, the attempts to recreate realistic hacking events within the confines of fiction are worthy of ovation. Nevertheless, this show is by far, much easier to relate to as a hacktivist, than say, CSI: Cyber; because in the real world, the FBI and CIA websites are hacked into, in less than 5 minutes. It really does happen.

Sources: NMap.Org, Kali Linux, Wget, Shellshock, John the Ripper, BTScanner, BlueSniff, Metasploit, S.E.T.


This article (Exploiting the Tools from “Mr. Robot”) is a free and open source. You have permission to republish this article under a Creative Commons license with attribution to the author and AnonHQ

 

Phone Call Leaked! All USA People Need to See This! June 2016 New World Order Exposed !

Finally FOX News showing more PROOF and EVIDENCES for MARTIAL LAW and FEMA! Leak!! People of America urgent news!! Public utility! Update to JUNE 2016! Real Scenes! This video is very important! NEW EVIDENCES – NEW PROOF! All American people need to see this! GOV LEAKED! FEMA CAMPS and MARTIAL LAW are coming in 2016!! All Americans need to watch this!! Let’s Share… Share… this video must be shared with max number of people! make your part now, please share it! Because the Government Cover-up! Important: Before JUDGE, watch the whole video. MARTIAL LAW EMINENT APPROACH! MUST SEE!! URGENT VIDEO PUBLIC UTILITY! FEMA CAMPS IS REAL!! OBAMA IS LEAKED!

Phone call leaked! All USA people need to see this! JUNE 2016 NEW WORLD ORDER Exposed! pls share

David Rockefeller Says Conspiracy About ‘One World Order’ Is True

David Rockefeller Says Conspiracy About ‘One World Order’ Is True

David Rockefeller is a part of American history and the only billionaire in the world who is over 100 years old. The richest oldest man on the planet is due to turn 101 in June.

He is part of a family dynasty whose name is associated with America and has become legend. His grandfather John D Rockefeller who died in 1937 was the founder of Standard Oil and the world’s richest individual.

The name Rockefeller has been associated with wealth, power, politics, finance, diplomacy, philanthropy, marijuana prohibition, aliens, UFO’s and conspiracy theories.

One such conspiracy theory is the creation of a ‘one world order’, according to which a group of ‘Elites’, including David, are milking the system for their own benefits and the benefit of their friends and fellow conspirators against the interest of the United States.

They have been accused of setting up institutions such as the ‘Trilateral Commission’ and the ‘Bilderberg Group’ among others to advance their interests nationally and globally.

Their aim is to create an international world order under a single umbrella, to deal with global issues, initiated and controlled by western countries.

Obviously such a hefty vision could be seen as a conspiracy, by the powerful and the well connected, to dominate and manipulate the weak and the fragmented people of the world.

David Rockefeller, the last former member of the unofficial royal family of America, has admitted in an article by The Independent, that if he is accused of such conspiracies to bring about a ‘one world order’, then he is proud and guilty as charged.

He says: “Some even believe [the Rockefellers] are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterising my family and me as ‘internationalists’ conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure – one world, if you will. If that’s the charge, I stand guilty, and I’m proud of it.”

Although the name ‘Rockefeller’ still retains its resonance, its influence is fading. Being a Rockefeller these days ain’t what it used to be.

THE INDEPENDENT REPORTS:

David, patriarch of that family and of a vanished Wasp establishment, celebrated his 100th birthday.

These days he is pretty low in the billionaires’ pecking order: 603rd according to Forbes magazine, the chronicler of such matters, with a fortune of “only” $3.2bn.

Even the family’s total wealth, much of it locked away in trusts, is put at a relatively modest $10bn – enough to buy fleets of yachts, private jets and a couple of mansions in Belgravia, but not a patch on his grandfather John D Rockefeller.

When he died in 1937, “Senior”, the founder of Standard Oil and a contender for the world’s richest ever individual, was reckoned to have assets equal to 1.5 per cent of US GDP, about $250bn today. Compared with that, Carlos Slim, Bill Gates and Warren Buffett are distant also-rans.

From almost the moment of his birth, on 12 June 1915, in the embers of the Gilded Age, David was the favourite grandchild: the one, according to “Senior”, who was “most like myself”.

The others of John Rockefeller Jnr’s six children are now long gone. Winthrop, a former governor of Arkansas, died in 1973. Abigail, David’s only sister, died in 1976, followed by John in 1978, and by Nelson – his most famous sibling, governor of New York and Gerald Ford’s vice-president – in 1979.

Laurance Rockefeller, an airline magnate, survived until 2004. David is the last one left. And in his day, Nelson notwithstanding, he was probably the most influential of them all.

David Rockfeller flourished at the intersection of business, high finance and international diplomacy. He was never elected to any political office, but in his heyday, in the 1970s and 1980s, he seemed to know every politician who mattered on the planet.

Part of that went with the job of chairman of Chase Manhattan, which David sought to make a global bank. Part was due to merely being a Rockfeller.

“Having the name can be an advantage,” he once said. “I’m more apt to get through on the telephone to somebody.” Part perhaps also reflected his much-praised work in US wartime intelligence in Europe, between 1943 and 1945.

All of this made him a networker of epic proportions (his Rolodex, in that pre-smartphone age, read like a global Who’s Who); not surprisingly the journalist and former LBJ aide Bill Moyers once called him “the unelected but indisputable chairman of the American establishment”.

From the outset, too, David was a committed internationalist. To that end, in 1973 he set up the Trilateral Commission, featuring the West’s great and good, and soon found himself the butt of conspiracy theorists around the globe.

Today, there’s much hyperventilating about the secretiveness of the Bilderberg Group (another collection of worthies favoured by David). But that fuss is nothing compared with the suspicions once aroused by the Trilateral Commission.

For the right, it was a cabal operating as a global government; the left saw an unaccountable rich man’s club, promoting free markets to the exclusion of all else. Senior’s favourite grandson was accused of being the plotter in chief – and he positively revelled in the charges.

“Some even believe [the Rockefellers] are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterising my family and me as ‘internationalists’ conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure – one world, if you will. If that’s the charge, I stand guilty, and I’m proud of it.”

But the globetrotting chumminess had its downside. David Rockefeller, it was said, never met a dictator he disliked.

More specifically, he worked with his friend Henry Kissinger to persuade President Carter to allow another friend, the deposed Shah of Iran, into the US in 1979 to be treated for cancer.

The result was the Tehran embassy hostage-taking and a rupture with Iran that endures to this day.

Most fascinating perhaps is David’s relationship with the domineering Nelson. His elder sibling was tempestuous, ferociously ambitious and a compulsive womaniser. As a child, David was reserved and solitary, with an passion for collecting beetles.

As an adult, he was suave and non-confrontational, a man who loathed scenes above all else. Not surprisingly, the pair grew apart, especially after Nelson’s divorce and remarriage to his mistress Happy Murphy in 1963, a scandal that may have scuppered his presidential aspirations.

Gradually, starting even before Nelson’s death, David became the family head, his image further burnished by philanthropy: over his life, he is reckoned to have given away $900m, including $79m last year alone. In 2002, he became the first Rockfeller to write an autobiography, entitled, simply, Memoirs.

Ultimately, David Rockefeller is a reminder of how even the mightiest dynasties fade. Before the Kennedys, the Rockefellers were America’s unofficial royal family.

But the last Rockefeller to hold public office, David’s nephew Jay, retired last year from his Senate seat in West Virginia. The Kennedys are increasingly history, and, one day, the Bushes and Clintons will be as well.

The younger Rockefellers have gone their own way. Most have to make their own living; some have even changed their names. Being a Rockefeller ain’t what it used to be.

Their political relevance, however, persists. David, like Nelson, was a “Rockefeller Republican”, a well-born moderate endowed with a deep sense of noblesse oblige.

If the GOP is to recapture the White House in 2016, a dash of inclusive Rockefeller Republicanism is essential. And nothing, surely, would more delight the oldest billionaire on earth.

NO COPYRIGHT TROLLS, YOUR EVIDENCE ISN’T FLAWLESS

OPINION

If you get a letter through the post accusing you of Internet piracy, you must be guilty. That’s the message from most copyright trolls and infuriatingly, even some ‘neutral’ lawyers commenting on these cases. But while it might seem daunting, putting up a fight is not only the right thing to do, but can also cause claimants to back off.

xmastrollEarlier this month TF broke the news that Sky Broadband in the UK were sending letters out to some of their customers, warning them they’re about to be accused of downloading and sharing movies without permission.

When they arrive the threats will come from Golden Eye International (GEIL), the company behind the ‘Ben Dover’ porn brand that has already targeted hundreds of people with allegations of Internet piracy.

“It’s likely that Golden Eye International will contact you directly and may ask you to pay them compensation,” the ISP warned.

In fact, GEIL will definitely ask for money, largely based on their insistence that the evidence they hold is absolutely irrefutable. It’s the same tune they’ve been singing for years now, without ever venturing to back up their claims in court. Sadly, other legal professionals are happy to sing along with them.

“Don’t do anything illegal and you won’t get a letter,” intellectual property specialist Iain Connor told The Guardian last week.

“Golden Eye will only have gotten details of people that they can prove downloaded content and so whether the ‘invoice’ demand is reasonable will depend on how much they downloaded that infringed copyright material.”

Quite aside from the fact that none of these cases are about downloading copyrighted material (they’re about uploading), one has to presume that Connor isn’t personally familiar with details of these cases otherwise he would’ve declared that interest. Secondly, he is absolutely wrong.

Companies like GEIL sometimes get it wrong, the anti-piracy trackers they use get things wrong, and ISPs get things wrong too. An IP address is NOT a person but innocent parties have to go to huge lengths to prove that. IT worker Harri Salminen did just that and this week finally managed to publicly clear his family’s name.

It started two years ago when his wife – the Internet account payer – was accused by an anti-piracy outfit (unconnected to GEIL) of pirating on a massive scale.

“They claimed that thousands of music tracks had been illegally distributed from our Internet connection,” Salminen told local media.

“The letter came addressed to my wife and she became very anxious, since she didn’t understand what this was all about. According to the letter, the matter was going to the court and we were advised to make contact to agree on compensation.”

Sound familiar? Read on.

The Salminen family has two children so took time to ensure they hadn’t uploaded anything illegally. Harri Salminen, who works in the IT industry, established that they had not, so began to conduct his own investigation. Faced with similar “irrefutable” IP address-based evidence to that presented in all of these ‘troll’ cases, what could’ve possibly gone wrong?

Attached to the letter of claim was a page from Salminen’s ISP which detailed the name of his wife, the IP address from where the piracy took place, and a date of infringement. This kind of attachment is common in such cases and allows trolls to imply that their evidence is somehow endorsed by their target’s ISP.

Then Salminen struck gold. On the day that the alleged infringement took place the IT worker was operating from home while logged into his company’s computer systems. Knowing that his company keeps logs of the IP addresses accessing the system, Salminen knew he could prove which IP address he’d been using on the day.

“I looked into my employer’s system logs for IP-addresses over several weeks and I was able to show that our home connection’s IP address at the time of the alleged act was quite different from the IP address mentioned in the letter,” he explained.

So what caused Salminen’s household to be wrongly identified? Well, showing how things can go wrong at any point, it appears that there was some kind of screw-up between the anti-piracy company and Salminen’s ISP.

Instead of identifying the people who had the IP address at the time of the actual offense, the ISP looked up the people using the address when the inquiry came in.

“The person under employment of the ISP inputs a date, time, and IP-address to the system based on a court order,” anti-piracy group TTVK now explains.

“And of course, when a human is doing something, there is always a possibility for an error. But even one error is too much.”

Saliminen says that it was only his expertise in IT that saved him from having to battle it out in court, even though his family was entirely innocent. Sadly, those about to be accused by Golden Eye probably won’t have access to similar resources.

“We have only written to those account holders for whom we have evidence of copyright infringement,” Golden Eye’s Julian Becker said confidently last week.

Trouble is, Golden Eye only has an IP address and the name of the account holder. They have no evidence that person is the actual infringer, even presuming there hasn’t been a screw-up like the one detailed above.

“We have written to account holders accusing them of copyright infringement, even though it’s entirely possible they personally did nothing wrong and shouldn’t have to pay us a penny,” is perhaps what he should’ve said.

But that’s not only way too frank but a sure-fire way of punching a huge hole in GEIL’s bottom line. And for a troll like GEIL, that would be a disaster.

ROUTING ‘FEATURE’ CAN EXPOSE VPN USERS’ REAL IP-ADDRESSES

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A VPN is generally touted as an ideal tool to remain anonymous online, but this is more easily said than done. This week ProstoVPN revealed a widespread issue that can in many cases expose the true IP-addresses of users, unless proper action is taken.

ip-addressA few weeks ago we covered a security flaw which allowed attackers to uncover the real IP-addresses of VPN users, if their providers allow forwarding on their network.

The news was picked up widely as it affected millions of users. However, it is just one of the many possible exploits VPN users are facing.

This week another issue was highlighted by ProstoVPN. This “vulnerability” affects both users with a direct connection and those with routers that have UPnP port forwarding enabled.

The issue boils down to a rather basic network routing feature where UDP listening software (e.g. torrent clients) respond to packets that are sent to the user’s ISP IP-address, through the VPN interface.

This means that a potential attacker can link a VPN IP-address to a user’s ISP IP-address.

The problem

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The issue can affect users on all operating systems and is not always easy to fix on the user end. VPN providers with custom software can address it, but with the standard OpenVPN software users have to take action themselves.

While the scope of the issue is large, as many users and providers have yet to address the issue, it requires quite a bit of effort to carry out an attack. It basically requires the attacker to send UDP packets to the entire Internet.

In addition, there’s the possibility of false positives which means that it’s harder to pinpoint the exact ISP IP-address. With this in mind, it seems unlikely that monitoring companies will attempt to expose every BitTorrent user with a VPN.

ProstoVPN informs TorrentFreak that they alerted 11 providers, and two confirmed that they have fixed the issue with a software update.

“Information about this ‘feature’ was sent to 11 VPN providers and only five of them replied: Private Internet Access and Perfect Privacy have released updated software which blocks incoming connections.”

Not all providers were equally responsive and one suggested that the issue should be addressed by the users. There is some truth to that, but the same provider does protect its users against similar problems on the user-side, such as DNS, IPv6 and WebRTC leaks.

While there’s no need for outright panic, it is a good development that these type of problems are being highlighted. It prompts VPN providers to take action and users to remain vigilant.

That said, it also shows that 100% anonymity is pretty much impossible.

More details on the routing “feature” and its consequences are available inProstoVPN’s article and in the statements published by Perfect Privacy and Private Internet Access.

Update: TorGuard informs TF that they were one of the notified VPN providers and that they’ve addressed the issue.

Update: CyberGhost tells TF that their Windows and Mac app are not affected by this issue. The issue was fixed two years ago.

How to join Anonymous

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Anonymous – How to join Anonymous 2015

The hacktivist collective Anonymous does a lot of good. It’s been fighting Islamic State onlinefor quite some time, outed Ku Klux Klan members in another operation, and even targetedKanye West for being a “spoiled child in a grown man’s body”, which is hard to argue with.

If you’ve ever aspired to join Anonymous but weren’t sure how or where to begin, here’s the bad news. You can’t “join” Anonymous. Not because you’re not wanted or welcome, but because, as a new recruiting video explains, it’s “not an organization. It is not a club, a party or even a movement. There is no charter, no manifest, no membership fees”. That said, if you want to be part of Anonymous you can, and it’s easy to do so.

According to the video, if you share the common goal of Anonymous — which is change the world for the better — then you’re “in” if you want to be. Yes, it’s that simple. There’s no one to say you are, or aren’t part of the collective.

The video also explains how to get in touch with other people in Anonymous, and — just as importantly — how to protect your identity and privacy. Tips include using a different browser purely for Anonymous and creating new accounts for an Anonymous pseudonym on Facebook and Twitter.

Watch the full video below:

How to join Anonymous – A beginners guide

 

Anonymous Training Video – Become A Member In Less Than 1 Hour

 

How to join Anonymous? Anonymous Hack Tools!

 

 

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